What are the major social science disciplines?
- political science
How was Anthropology connected to colonization and global imperial expansion?
- 1) They were valued for their expert knowledge
- 2) Able to provide information about how to rule the colonie
What is Anthropology?
the study of human nature, human society, and the human past
What are the major sub-divisions of Anthropology?
- cultural anthropology
- archeological anthropology
- biological/physical anthropology
- linguistic anthropology
What is the theory of Unilineal Social Evolution?
If non-western societies were left to themselves and given enough time, they would make the same discoveries and change socially the same way that western Europe had
Who was Franz Boas?
- "Father of American Anthropology"
- -rejected the unilineal evolution theory
- -culture binded people through common past
- - cultural change as a dymanic series of causes and effect involving individuals
What did Boas mean by "historical particularism?"
he believed that all humans are biologically equal but the difference lies in the culture
*base cultures on it's own particular history
What is "cultural relativism?"
understanding a cultures differences and make a perspective that is free of bias and racist ideology
What is ethnocentrism?
the opinion that one;s own way of life is natural or correct and indeed the only true way of being fully human
What does the concept of culture mean?
it encompasses the wide range of shared and distinct values, beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and assumptions that people have about themselves and others
What are the key dimensions of Culture?
- made up of internal conflict
What is the traditional theory of culture?
culture is transmitted and adopted across generations, binding people through their common past (modern "structural" theory)
What is the contemporary theory?
culture is something being continually created, made, and reworked in the present as a result of power and agency (postmodern "practice" theory)
What is the "agency-structure" debate in social theory?
how they are co-evolving and need both to understand culture
What was the goal of Geertz "interpretive" approach to Anthropology?
to use "thick description" to analyze people
What is qualitative research?
"quality"..going around getting data by talking to people
what is quantitative research?
applying mathematics, using statistics to get information
What is Ethnography?
a written description of a culture, mostly after living with them for a particular amount of time (Malinowski)
What are key characteristics of ethnography?
- 1)carried out in a natural setting
- 2)involves face-to-face interaction
- 3)uses the concept of "culture"
What is fieldwork?
an extended period of close involvement with the people who you are interested in and then they collect their data
What is participant observation?
"hanging out" and observing the participants and participating in events and taking part in local happenings
Why is participant observation important?
- -not being the fly on the wall
- -being there to intensify the understandings of situated knowledge
What is Archival Research?
- written historical records
- exploring questions posed in previous research
Why is Archival Research important?
it explores questions posed in previous research
What are in-depth interviews?
interviews that explore topics in detail to deepened the knowledge
What are semi-structured interviews?
goal oriented, exploratory methods. Develop a qualitative base for the construction of an ethnographic survey
What is the Narritive/Discourse Analysis?
analyzing data from sentences that naturally occur
What is a Ethnographic Survey?
a survey used to discover associations among variables
Why do Anthropologists combine qualitative and quantitative methods?
to use this information and try to see common variables
What are the basic features to the code of ethics?
to protect the research subjects and get informed consent
What was Noam Chomsky's theory to language?
having "openness". Being able to understand new messages from different points of view
What is meant by having linguistic competence?
the mastery of adult grammer
What is the difference between "acquiring" and "learning" language
children acquire language and adults learn language
What was Edward Sapirs contribution to anthropology?
-theory that human language determine the structure of the real world as perceived by human beings
What is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
"linguistic relativity principle"..language shapes perception
What is Sociolinguistics?
the study of the relationship between social and linguistics variations
What is Ethnosemantics?
the inside point of view
What is syntax?
the study of sentence structure
what is pragmatics?
language in its context of use