Psychology: Chapter 3 part 1

  1. What are the 2 types of communication systems?
    • endoctrine
    • nervous
  2. endoctrine system
    • uses hormones to influence behaviors and actions
    • chemical messenger system
    • commanded by hypothalamus
  3. 2 components  of nervous system?
    • central nervous system
    • peripheral nervous system
  4. central nervous system
    brain and spinal cord
  5. peripheral nervous system includes...
    somatic & autonomic nervous systems
  6. interneurons
    neurons that communicate with other neurons
  7. afferent vs efferent nerves
    • afferent- carry info to CNS
    • efferent- carry info away from CNS
  8. somatic nervous system
    • made up of nerves which transmit sensory signals to and from central nervous system
    • transmits sensory signals and motor skills between CNS and skin, muscles joints
  9. autonomic nervous system
    transmits sensory signals and motor signals between central nervous system & body's glands & internal organs

    regulates body's internal environment
  10. two divisions of ANS
    sympathetic & parasympathetic
  11. sympathetic division
    prepares body for fight or flight
  12. parasympathetic division
    returns body to resting state
  13. neurons
    individual cells in nervous system which receive, integrate & transmit information
  14. how is information passed through neuron?
    dendrites receive info, passed along axon via action potential to terminal buttons where neurotransmitters are released to next neuron's dendrites
  15. what is the purpose of the myelin sheath?
    to increase speed of transmitters
  16. what are the 4 types of neurons?
    receptor, sensory (afferent), motor (efferent), interneurons
  17. what are the 2 ways neurons communicate?
    • electrical: within cells
    • chemical: between cells
  18. action potential
    neural impulse which passes along axon
  19. resting membrane potential
    electrical charge of neuron when it is not active (negative)
  20. synapse
    site at which chemical communication occurs between neurons
  21. synaptic cleft
    gap between axon of sending neuron and dendrites of receiving neuron
  22. nodes of Ranvier
    small gaps of exposed axon between segments of myelin sheath, where action potentials are transmitted
  23. when does action potential occur?
    neuron receives more excitatory signals, potassium flows in, sodium flows out which leads to an excessively positively charged ion (less polarized)
  24. excitatory signals
    reduces polarization, increases chance of firing
  25. inhibitory signals
    increases  polarization, decreases chance of firing
  26. what is the charge of the neuron during: resting state? firing? post firing?
    • resting state: negative
    • firing: positive
    • post-firing: negative
  27. all or nothing principle
    neurons fire with the same force each time (either fire or not)
  28. presynaptic
    neurons which send signals
  29. post synaptic
    neurons which receive signals
  30. what carries the excitatory/inhibitory signal
  31. how do neurotransmitter travel from terminal buttons of presynaptic neuron to dendrites of post synaptic neuron?
    carry inhibitory/excitatory signal across synaptic cleft-> bind to receptors on post synaptic neuron
  32. What are the 3 events which can terminate neurotransmitter influence?
    • reuptake
    • enzyme deactivation
    • autoreception
  33. reuptake
    • neurotransmitter is released into synaptic cleft and then returned
    • reduce, reuse & reuptake :)
  34. enzyme deactivation
    enzyme destroys neurotransmitter in synaptic cleft
  35. autoreception
    receptors on presynaptic neuron (auto receptors) monitor how much neurotransmitter has been released into synaptic cleft and signal for the neuron to stop once excess is detected
  36. agonist
    drug which enhances actions of neurotransmitters
  37. antagonist
    drug which inhibits actions of neurotransmitters
  38. types of neurotransmitters
    acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate, GABA
  39. acetylcholine
    • motor control between nerves & muscles
    • i.e. Botox
    • learning, memory, sleeping, dreaming
    • i.e. Alzheimers
  40. dopamine
    • motivation & reward 
    • i.e. eating when hungary
    • motor control & planning
    • Parkinson's
  41. norepinephrine
    arousal & alertness
  42. serotonin
    • emotional states, impulse control, dreaming
    • low levels -> sad, anxious, aggressive
    • i.e. Prozac
  43. glutamate
    • primary excitatory transmitter
    • aids memory & learning
  44. GABA
    • primary inhibitory neurotransmitter
    • low levels -> epileptic seizures
Card Set
Psychology: Chapter 3 part 1
Biology and Behavior