Biology 5 Endocrine System

  1. Three basic types of hormones and where the hormone binds a cell
    • 1: Peptide - surface to activate 2nd messenger
    • 2: Steroid - diffuse through membran. act in nucleus
    • 3: Tyrosine derivative - split... thyroid diffuse to nucleus, catecholamines have membrane bound receptors
  2. How to remember which hormones are steroids, peptides, or tyrosine derivatives
    • 1: The adrenal cortex, gonads, and placenta make STEROIDS
    • 2: Tyrosines: are from the thyroid and adrenal medula which are termed catecholamines 
    • 3: Peptides are most others.
  3. Steroid hormones I must know! + What stuctures they are associated with
    Adrenal Cortex: glucocorticoids, mineral coticoids which are cortisol and aldosterone

    Gonads: Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
  4. Tyrosine Derivatives hormones I must know! + What stuctures they are associated with
    • Thyroid homones: T3 and T4 
    • Adrenal Medulla: Catecholamines - Epinephrine, norepinephrin
  5. Anterior Pituitary Hormones and function
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  6. Posterior Pituitary Hormones and function
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  7. Adrenal Cortex Hormones and function
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  8. Adrenal Medulla Hormones and function
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  9. Thyroid Hormones and function
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  10. Parathyroid Hormones and function
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  11. Pancrease Hormones and function
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  12. Ovaries Hormones and function
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  13. Testes Hormones and function
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  14. Placenta Hormones and function
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  15. region of sperm production and associated hormones and function
    • Seminiferous tubules
    • FSH: stimulates "caretake cells" for spermatacytes
    • LH: stimulates testosterone release
  16. Define: Androgen
    sex hormone
  17. Seminal fluid is composed of fluid from which structures?
    Seminal Vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands/Cowper's glands
  18. Describe oogenesis
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    • Zona pellucida = viscous fluid
  19. Describe hormone regulation of menstrual cycle
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    • 1: In the presence of FSH in the blood, LH stimulates estradiol (type of estrogen) release which prepares uterine wall for pregnancy.
    • 2: Estradiol inhibits LH secretion, but just before ovulation, estradiol levels rise drastically which causes large LH increase termed Luteal Surge.
    • 3: Luteal surge causes follicle to burst
  20. Fertilization and Embryology
    • 1: Fertilization - occurs in fallopian tube
    • 2: Cleavage - occurs while zygote is in fallopian tube, mitosis occurs.  Once 8 or more cells exist, the zygote is called a morulla. All cells are totipotent
    • 3: division continues and forms a hollow ball filled with fluid called the Blastocyst
    • 4: Implantation of blastocyst in uterine wall occurs 5-7 days
    • 5: implantation causes HCG to be released to prevent corpus luteum degeneration and to maintain estrogen and progesterone levels (HCG in blood = first sign of pregnancy)
    • 6: PLacenta forms.
    • 7: gastrula forms and gastrulation occurs during 2nd week.
    • 8: primary germ layers form.
    • 9: 3rd week, gastrula forms neurula in a process called neurulation.  This is when the notochord forms.

  21. What tissues do the three germ layers form?
    • Endoderm: lining of digestive tract, liver, pancrease
    • MEsoderm: tissue between inner and outer layers. muscle, bone, ...
    • Ectoderm: outer covering of body. nails, skin, tooth enamel, and most of nervous system and sensory organs
Card Set
Biology 5 Endocrine System
Biology 5 Endocrine System