Deaf Culture Test 1

  1. Define Deaf Culture
    • includes:
    • school attended
    • communities joined
    • theater
    • language

    “a way of describing the lives of Deaf people”

    • Focused on
    • beliefs and practices, particularly the central role of sign language in
    • everyday life of the community

    • •       
  2. Little "d" deaf
    refers to condition of deafness or a larger group of individuals with hearing loss without a reference to particular language
  3. Two Authors
    • 1. Carol Padden
    • CODA and Hard of Hearing
    • ASL primary language
    • Family members in Deaf community

    • 2. Tom Humphries
    • lost his hearing at age 6
    • only deaf person in a small town
    • later joined Deaf culture

    First book together Deaf in American: Voices from Culture
  4. First School for Deaf
    • 1817
    • Hartford, Connecticut
    • American School for the Deaf
  5. How many in US & Canada use ASL
  6. 1950- how many deaf children attended residential schools for the deaf?
  7. 2002- how many deaf children attended residential schools for the deaf?
  8. Key problems in Deaf schools
    • had to relocate
    • separate from family
    • rules/strict
    • harsh punishment
    • bullying
  9. By the end of the 19th Century how many schools for the deaf were there?
  10. Mason Cogswell
    • Father of Deaf child named Alice.
    • Hired Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet to travel to Europe to learn how to educate deaf children
  11. Alice Cogswell
    Deaf child of Mason Cogswell and reason he hired Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet to go to Europe to learn how to educate deaf children
  12. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet
    Hired by Mason Cogswell to travel to Europe to learn how to educate deaf children.

    Developed ASL with Laurent Clerc who he met in France and brought back to America.

    Started American School for the Deaf in 1817 in Hartford, CT
  13. Abbe Sicard
    Director of the national school for the deaf in France

    Invited Thomas Gallaudetto observe at the French national school for the deaf in Paris
  14. Laurent Clerc
    Thomas Gallaudet met in France a deaf former student and current teacher at the national school for the deaf in France

    came back to America with Gallaudet and helped create ASL and start American School for the Deaf
  15. In comparison to other states when did Ohio get a school for the Deaf?
    5th, 1829
  16. How did deaf schools philosophy with philanthropists
    similar to that of asylums and prisons
    City leaders believed the "afflicted" should be removed from society and different classes of disabled and deviant should be kept separate from one another.

    They had the belief that there should be a "social distance between the confined and the outside world"

    As many city leaders were on Boards of numerous of different institutions (ie prisons, orphanages, mental asylums) often plans and ideas were exchanged between them, leading them to end up feeling similar to one another. Deaf children were then to not only be educated but feed and housed in order to turn them into "a being intelligence and proper conduct"

    * wasn't so pre-nineteenth century
  17. Robert Vaux
    Was on Board of Directors for Penn Institute for the Deaf and Dumb (1820)/ head of the board's education committee 

    a Quaker and Active Reformer

    wrote about beliefs and motives for education for Deaf children- pushed for all deaf children to have access to education regardless of ability to pay and got the state to contribute to the cost
  18. David Seixas
    Jewish Merchant and inventor

    Studied Abbe Sicard's methods for teaching the deaf he met deaf students on the streets  and set up a classroom in his house to teach them

    became Principal The Pennsylvania Institution For The Deaf And Dumb who was inappropriate with female students/ kissing them/ending their quarters at night 

    He was let go and later began another school- Philadelphia Asylum for Deaf and Dumb (only lasted a few years)
  19. Explain imbalance of power in Deaf schools
    caretakers have the power to watch and the patients do not

    Board members couldn't sign so Deaf students couldn't even be understood in order to defend themselves or tell about abuses- leaving them voiceless both literally and figuratively

    "perpetual judgement" constant reminder of the nature of their condition
  20. Schools for the Deaf were segregated until...
    1978- last segregated school in Baton Rouge closed
  21. When/What was Brown vs Board of Education
    1954- US Supreme Court said that separate schools for black and white students was unconstitutional
  22. Justus Jillson
    South Carolina Superintendent of Education that wanted integrated schools in 1873

    wrote a letter "Principal of Equal and not Seperate Education for Deaf Child"

    ordered South Carolina Institute of Deaf and Blind to admit black students

    • all the teachers resigned
    • accounting books turned over to the state
    • school closed
  23. Why were Deaf schools separated into 4 categories and what were they?
    • oral
    • manual
    • white
    • black

    It was believed that each had to be separated from the others or they couldn't learn properly- became costly
  24. Alexander Graham Bell
    had deaf wife and mother

    felt manual was backwards

    compared it to gestures and pantomime

    heavily pushed oralism

    Didn't want Deaf people to form a community and intermarry
  25. By end of 19th Century how many schools were oral?
  26. By 1920 how many schools were oral?
  27. Clarke School for the Deaf
    Still an oral only school today
  28. Ernest Hairston
    wrote Black and Deaf in America

     attended West Virginia School for the Colored Deaf and Blind.

    • In 1954, following the Supreme Court’s landmark anti-segregation ruling, he transferred to West Virginia School for the Deaf and Blind in Romney,
    •  He earned his Master’s in Administration

    working in the Captioned Films and Media Services Branch, U.S. Office of Education’s Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (now OSEP),

    He received his Ph.D. in Special Education Administration from Gallaudet University in 1994.
  29. 1902 Film featured who doing what?
    A deaf woman reciting the "Star Spangled Banner" in sign language
  30. Vitascope
    very early (1895) film projector invented by Edison
  31. What did the NAD undertake in 1913?
    Producing films for other deaf people in sign language as an attempt to fight back the oralism movement.

    The films were shipped around the country to deaf clubs and organizations. They made about 18 they were 8-9 minutes long.

    Prominent members of the Deaf community participated.
  32. When was the pivotal time in oralism and what state solidified it and how?

    Nebraska State required use of oralism for ALL deaf students
  33. What famous person was a powerful advocate for oralism and how did he further the cause?
    Alexander Graham Bell

    He bankrolled the oral proponents
  34. George Vedist
    President of the NAD

    Gave Lecture on film "Preservations of the Sign Language"

    It was the deaf community of the time's "I Have a Dream" Speech

    said sign language was "noblest gift that God has given deaf people"

    "first,last and for all time, people of the eye"

    Editor of Silent Courier a Deaf Newsletter
  35. Edward Minor Gallaudet
    son of Thomas Gallaudet

    filmed "The Lorna Doone Narrative"
  36. Why are the NAD films so important today.
    • Having a visual record of early sign allows sign linguists can study how sign has changed
    • - no mouth movements
    • -finger spelling was slower
  37. Roy Stewart
    Chair of the NAD's Moving Pictures Committee

    he began to charge to have films shipped around the country so new ones could be made and old ones reprinted

    his grandnephew had letter with typewritten copy of speech "Preservations of the Sign Language"
  38. By 1920 what percentage of deaf schools were oral?
  39. 1970's- 1980's ASL had a resurgence it was evident how?
    ASL was being taught on college campuses

    second most popular language after Spanish
  40. What impact did Deaf clubs have during the world wars?
    They were primary gathering place for Deaf community. Used to pass along information, for fellowship, sports, entertainment, help find jobs...they were the hub of Deaf communities
  41. Were deaf clubs all inclusive?
    No, they were segregated. There were black deaf clubs and white deaf clubs.
  42. Why is Ohio an important place when discussing Deaf clubs?
    Akron, during the wars, had the largest concentration of Deaf community in the country because the rubber companies, Goodyear and Firestone were huge employers of the deaf at the time.
  43. How were ex-oralists viewed in the deaf community at the time of the wars?
    They were not easily accepted

    called "hippopotamus" because of mouth movement
  44. What were Deaf peddlers?
    How did they fare financially?
    How did the general deaf community view deaf peddlers?
    a form of panhandling where deaf exploited their deafness and sold small cheap items to people

    highly profitable

    deaf community were ashamed of deaf peddlers
  45. What deaf technology began to appear?
    TTY telephone system

    Closed captioning
  46. Why did Deaf clubs disappear?
    People moved out of cities to the suburbs

    Technology made it easier to communicate over a long distance

    Professionals replaced the informal networking and mentoring that the clubs previous provided
  47. Gallaudet University
    The oldest deaf university in the world
Card Set
Deaf Culture Test 1
Deaf Culture Test 1