Define Deaf Culture
- school attended
- communities joined
“a way of describing the lives of Deaf people”
- Focused on
- beliefs and practices, particularly the central role of sign language in
- everyday life of the community
- DEAF IS NOT A LABEL – DOES NOT MEAN WITHOUT HEARING – BUT SPECIFIC AND PARTICULAR WAY OF
- BEING AND SHARED HISTORIES
Little "d" deaf
refers to condition of deafness or a larger group of individuals with hearing loss without a reference to particular language
- 1. Carol Padden
- CODA and Hard of Hearing
- ASL primary language
- Family members in Deaf community
- 2. Tom Humphries
- lost his hearing at age 6
- only deaf person in a small town
- later joined Deaf culture
First book together Deaf in American: Voices from Culture
First School for Deaf
- Hartford, Connecticut
- American School for the Deaf
How many in US & Canada use ASL
1950- how many deaf children attended residential schools for the deaf?
2002- how many deaf children attended residential schools for the deaf?
Key problems in Deaf schools
- had to relocate
- separate from family
- harsh punishment
By the end of the 19th Century how many schools for the deaf were there?
- Father of Deaf child named Alice.
- Hired Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet to travel to Europe to learn how to educate deaf children
Deaf child of Mason Cogswell and reason he hired Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet to go to Europe to learn how to educate deaf children
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet
Hired by Mason Cogswell to travel to Europe to learn how to educate deaf children.
Developed ASL with Laurent Clerc who he met in France and brought back to America.
Started American School for the Deaf in 1817 in Hartford, CT
Director of the national school for the deaf in France
Invited Thomas Gallaudetto observe at the French national school for the deaf in Paris
Thomas Gallaudet met in France a deaf former student and current teacher at the national school for the deaf in France
came back to America with Gallaudet and helped create ASL and start American School for the Deaf
In comparison to other states when did Ohio get a school for the Deaf?
How did deaf schools philosophy with philanthropists
similar to that of asylums and prisons
City leaders believed the "afflicted" should be removed from society and different classes of disabled and deviant should be kept separate from one another.
They had the belief that there should be a "social distance between the confined and the outside world"
As many city leaders were on Boards of numerous of different institutions (ie prisons, orphanages, mental asylums) often plans and ideas were exchanged between them, leading them to end up feeling similar to one another. Deaf children were then to not only be educated but feed and housed in order to turn them into "a being intelligence and proper conduct"
* wasn't so pre-nineteenth century
Was on Board of Directors for Penn Institute for the Deaf and Dumb (1820)/ head of the board's education committee
a Quaker and Active Reformer
wrote about beliefs and motives for education for Deaf children- pushed for all deaf children to have access to education regardless of ability to pay and got the state to contribute to the cost
Jewish Merchant and inventor
Studied Abbe Sicard's methods for teaching the deaf he met deaf students on the streets and set up a classroom in his house to teach them
became Principal The Pennsylvania Institution For The Deaf And Dumb who was inappropriate with female students/ kissing them/ending their quarters at night
He was let go and later began another school- Philadelphia Asylum for Deaf and Dumb (only lasted a few years)
Explain imbalance of power in Deaf schools
caretakers have the power to watch and the patients do not
Board members couldn't sign so Deaf students couldn't even be understood in order to defend themselves or tell about abuses- leaving them voiceless both literally and figuratively
"perpetual judgement" constant reminder of the nature of their condition
Schools for the Deaf were segregated until...
1978- last segregated school in Baton Rouge closed
When/What was Brown vs Board of Education
1954- US Supreme Court said that separate schools for black and white students was unconstitutional
South Carolina Superintendent of Education that wanted integrated schools in 1873
wrote a letter "Principal of Equal and not Seperate Education for Deaf Child"
ordered South Carolina Institute of Deaf and Blind to admit black students
- all the teachers resigned
- accounting books turned over to the state
- school closed
Why were Deaf schools separated into 4 categories and what were they?
It was believed that each had to be separated from the others or they couldn't learn properly- became costly
Alexander Graham Bell
had deaf wife and mother
felt manual was backwards
compared it to gestures and pantomime
heavily pushed oralism
Didn't want Deaf people to form a community and intermarry
By end of 19th Century how many schools were oral?
By 1920 how many schools were oral?
Clarke School for the Deaf
Still an oral only school today
wrote Black and Deaf in America
attended West Virginia School for the Colored Deaf and Blind.
- In 1954, following the Supreme Court’s landmark anti-segregation ruling, he transferred to West Virginia School for the Deaf and Blind in Romney,
- He earned his Master’s in Administration
working in the Captioned Films and Media Services Branch, U.S. Office of Education’s Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (now OSEP),
He received his Ph.D. in Special Education Administration from Gallaudet University in 1994.
1902 Film featured who doing what?
A deaf woman reciting the "Star Spangled Banner" in sign language
very early (1895) film projector invented by Edison
What did the NAD undertake in 1913?
Producing films for other deaf people in sign language as an attempt to fight back the oralism movement.
The films were shipped around the country to deaf clubs and organizations. They made about 18 they were 8-9 minutes long.
Prominent members of the Deaf community participated.
When was the pivotal time in oralism and what state solidified it and how?
Nebraska State required use of oralism for ALL deaf students
What famous person was a powerful advocate for oralism and how did he further the cause?
Alexander Graham Bell
He bankrolled the oral proponents
President of the NAD
Gave Lecture on film "Preservations of the Sign Language"
It was the deaf community of the time's "I Have a Dream" Speech
said sign language was "noblest gift that God has given deaf people"
"first,last and for all time, people of the eye"
Editor of Silent Courier a Deaf Newsletter
Edward Minor Gallaudet
son of Thomas Gallaudet
filmed "The Lorna Doone Narrative"
Why are the NAD films so important today.
- Having a visual record of early sign allows sign linguists can study how sign has changed
- - no mouth movements
- -finger spelling was slower
Chair of the NAD's Moving Pictures Committee
he began to charge to have films shipped around the country so new ones could be made and old ones reprinted
his grandnephew had letter with typewritten copy of speech "Preservations of the Sign Language"
By 1920 what percentage of deaf schools were oral?
1970's- 1980's ASL had a resurgence it was evident how?
ASL was being taught on college campuses
second most popular language after Spanish
What impact did Deaf clubs have during the world wars?
They were primary gathering place for Deaf community. Used to pass along information, for fellowship, sports, entertainment, help find jobs...they were the hub of Deaf communities
Were deaf clubs all inclusive?
No, they were segregated. There were black deaf clubs and white deaf clubs.
Why is Ohio an important place when discussing Deaf clubs?
Akron, during the wars, had the largest concentration of Deaf community in the country because the rubber companies, Goodyear and Firestone were huge employers of the deaf at the time.
How were ex-oralists viewed in the deaf community at the time of the wars?
They were not easily accepted
called "hippopotamus" because of mouth movement
What were Deaf peddlers?
How did they fare financially?
How did the general deaf community view deaf peddlers?
a form of panhandling where deaf exploited their deafness and sold small cheap items to people
deaf community were ashamed of deaf peddlers
What deaf technology began to appear?
TTY telephone system
Why did Deaf clubs disappear?
People moved out of cities to the suburbs
Technology made it easier to communicate over a long distance
Professionals replaced the informal networking and mentoring that the clubs previous provided
The oldest deaf university in the world