1. Interspinalis and Intertransverse muscles
    attach:   between spinous processes (interspinalis); between transverse processes (intertransverse)innerv:  dorsal rami of spinal nerves            action:   aids in extension and rotation of vertebral column (interspinales); aids in lateral                                bending and stabilizing vertebral column (intertransverse)
  2. Transversospinales Group (semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores together)
    attach:  transverse processes & spinous processes of vertebraeinnerv:   dorsal rami of spinal nerves            action:  extend, laterally bend (or flex), rotate, and stabilize the vertebral column
  3. Erector Spinae (iliocostalis, longissimus, andspinalis together
    attach:   cervical, thoracic, inf. lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, iliac crest, ribs,mastoid process (of temporal bone) innerv:  dorsal rami of spinal nerves.            action:   extend the vertebral column and head & laterally bend/flex the vertebral column
  4. Splenius Cervicis
    attach:   T3-T6 spinous processes, C1-C4 transverse processes innerv:  dorsal rami  nerves.action:   extend & laterally bend (or flex) the neck
  5. Splenius Capitis
    attach:   ligamentum nuchae, C7 – T4 vert., mastoid process & occipital boneinnerv:   dorsal rami nerves.action:  extend & laterally bend (or flex) the neck
  6. Serratus Posterior Inferior
    attach:   T11-L2 vert., thoracolumbar fascia, ribs 9-12innerv:  T10-T12 intercostal nerves action:   depresses ribs (accessory muscle of respiration)
  7. Serratus Posterior Superior
    attach:   C7-T3 vert., ligamentum nuchae, ribs 2-5innerv:  T1-T3 intercostal (ventral rami) nerves action:                   elevates ribs (accessory muscle of respiration)
  8. Latissimus Dorsi
    attach:   T7-T12 vert., ribs 10-12, iliac crest, humerus (bicipital or intertubercular groove)innerv:   thoracodorsal n. action:   extends, adducts, & medially rotates humerus
  9. Levator Scapulae
    attach:   C1-C4 vertebrae, scapula (near superior angle)innerv:  dorsal scapular n. action:   elevates & inferiorly rotates scapula
  10. Rhomboids (Major and Minor together)
    attach:   C7-T5 vertebrae., scapula (medial border from spine to inferior angle) innerv:  dorsal scapular n.action:                   retracts, inferiorly rotates, and stabilizes scapula
  11. Trapezius
    attach:   occipital bone, C7-T12 vertebrae., clavicle, scapula (acromion & spine)innerv:  spinal accessory n. (CN XI)action:  superior fibers - elevate scapula,               middle fibers retract scapula,               inferior fibers depress scapulae,superior & inferior fibers together - cause upward or superior rotation of scapula
  12. pectoralis major
    attach:              sternum, costal cartilages 1-6, clavicle                        bicipital groove of the humerus.nerve:              medial & lateral pectoral nervesaction:              adducts & medially rotates humerus;                                    clavicular head (acting alone) flexes humerus;                                    sternocostal head (acting alone) extends humerus from flexed position
  13. pectoralis minor
    attach:              scapula (coracoid process);                        ribs 3-5.nerve:              medial pectoral nerveaction:              stabilizes & protracts scapula
  14. serratus anterior
    attach:              ribs 1-9                        medial border of the scapulanerve:              long thoracic (C5-7)action:              protracts scapula; raises ribs when scapula is fixed; stabilizes scapula
  15. subclavius
    nerve:              nerve to subclavius            action:              draws clavicle inferiorly & anteriorly, protects deeper structures
  16. subscapularis(rotator cuff muscle)
    nerve:                          upper and lower subscapular ns.action:              medial rotation & adduction of arm
  17. teres minor (rotator cuff muscle)
    • attach:                          lateral border of
    • scapula                        greater tubercle of humerusnerve:                          axillary n.action:              lateral rotation of arm
  18. infraspinatus (rotator cuff muscle)
    attach:              infraspinous fossa of scapula                        greater tubercle of humerusnerve:                          suprascapular n.action:              lateral rotation of arm
  19. supraspinatus (rotator cuff muscle)
    attach:              supraspinous fossa of scapula                        greater tubercle of humerusnerve:                          suprascapular n.action:              abduction of arm
  20. teres major
    nerve::                          lower subscapular n.action:              adduction & medial rotation of arm
  21. deltoid
    attach:              clavicle (lateral 1/3), acromion & spine of scapula                        deltoid tuberosity of humerusnerve:                          axillary n.action:              anterior fibers: flexes & medially rotates arm                        middle fibers: abducts arm                        posterior fibers: extends & laterally rotates arm
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