What likely determines whether the lactate or alanine --> pyruvate pathway is used?
probably the cytoplasmic NADH/NAD+ ratio that determines which pathway is used
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK)
converts oxaloacetate --> phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) in the cytoplasm
What are the cofactors for pyruvate carboxylase?
Biotin, magnesium, & manganous ions
all carboxylyases require biotin as a cofactor
What is the activator pyruvate carboxylyase requires for enzymatic activity?
carboxylase cofactor that covalently binds to the enzymes and serves as a carrier of activated carbon dioxide that's added to a carboxylase substrate
enzyme that cleaves the bond between biotin and a protein to regenerate free biotin so it can bind to another protein
a deficiency in the enzyme means biotin can't be cleaved from proteins being degraded and reused in other carboxylases; clinically evident in infants through seizures, other neurological signs, skin rash, & hair loss
How may habitually eating raw egg whites cause biotin deficiency?
egg whites contain a protein called AVIDIN that strongly binds to biotin, and in very rare cases essentially remove it from solution
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK)
enzyme found in the cytoplasm that decarboxylates oxaloacetate and transfers a phosphate group from GTP forming phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
Oxaloacetate + GTP --> PEP + GDP + CO2
Mice genetically engineered to over-express which enzyme exhibit "mighty mouse-like" treadmill running abilities?
PEPCK phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase
irreversibly changes fructose-1,6-bisphosphate into fructose-6-phosphate
What are the only three types of cells that can hydrolyze glucose-6-phosphate?
liver, intestine & kidneys; G-6-P is only found in these cells
they return glucose to the circulation after its absorption
Why is hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate into glucose by glucose-6-phosphatase necessary for liver, intestine & kidney cells to return it into the blood stream?
because the highly charged phosphorylated sugar cannot pass through the cell membrane; free glucose is not charged and can pass through the membrane and be released to the circulation
True or False: high levels of glucose-6-phosphate increase the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase?
True; G-6-phosphatase acts to dephosphorylate (that's what a phosphatase does) G-6-P so glucose can be deposited in the blood stream
What are the 3 different proteins that make up glucose-6-phosphatase and where is the enzyme found?
one phosphatase and two translocases
T1: transports glucose-6-phosphate from the cytoplasm to the opposite side of the ER membrane
phosphatase: attached to the side of the membrane that isn't in direct contact with the cytoplasm
T2: mediates transport of Pi back to the cytosol
In which cellular compartment is glucose-6-phosphatase found?
the endoplasmic reticulum
True or False: both pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) use ATP?
pyruvate carboxylase uses ATP
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase uses GTP
How many moles of pyruvate and ATP equivalents are required to synthesize ONE mole of glucose via gluconeogenesis?
2 moles of pyruvate and 6 moles of ATP equivalents are required to synthesize one mole of glucose
What are the four points in gluconeogenesis where metabolite regulation occurs?
1. pyruvate can be converted to either oxaloacetate OR acetyl-CoA
2. two different outcomes for PEP
3. synthesis/degradation of F-1,6-bisP
4. hydrolysis of G-6-P
What are the two things pyruvate can be converted to once it enters liver mitochondria?
pyruvate --> oxaloacetate (by pyruvate carboxylase) for gluconeogenesis
pyruvate --> acetyl-CoA (by pyruvate dehydrogenase) for a) fatty acid synthesis OR b) TCA cycle oxidation
True or False: high levels of pyruvate and acetyl-CoA favor pyruvate carboxylase activity over pyruvate dehydrogenase
True: pyruvate carboxylase turns pyruvate into oxaloacetate for gluconeogenesis
pyruvate dehydrogenase turns pyruvate into more acetyl-CoA which clearly we don't need based on the question stem
How is pyruvate dehydrogenase regulated?
inhibited by certain serine phosphorylation --> promotes gluconeogenesis because it can't make acetyl-CoA from pyruvate when inhibited(no fatty acid synthesis or TCA cycle oxidation)
activated: dephosphorylation of that certain serine (and enzyme ACTIVATION) is stimulated by insulin in fat cells
What stimulates the phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (inactivation of the enzyme)?
an increase in mitochondrial NADH & acetyl-CoA
Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) can be a substrate for which two enzymes?
1. enolase: converts it to 2-phosphoglycerate for gluconeogenesis
2. pyruvate kinase for energy production
What are two important inhibitors of pyruvate kinase?
ATP (product) & alanine (which is not only a substrate for gluconeogenesis but also inhibits a competing reaction!)
What activates pyruvate kinase?
this activation is an example of forward stimulation in which an intermediate of a pathway (glycolysis) accelerates a reaction further along the pathway
_____________________ is the most potent regulator at the key steps of formation and hydrolysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate by fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphofructokinase 1, which catalyzes the reverse reaction (F-6-P to F-1,6-bisP)
Which enzyme is the main regulator involved in balancing glycolysis vs. gluconeogenesis?
when phosphorylated --> there's more phosphatase activity that produces F-6-P --> favors gluconeogenesis
when DEphosphorylated --> there's more kinase activity that produces F-2,6-bisP --> activates/favors glycolysis
dephosphorylated state, + kinase activity
phosphorylated state, + phosphatase activity)
In what state would PFK2 be activated?
in a well-fed state when blood glucose is high
as a result, insulin is released which triggers PFK2 to catalyze this reaction:
F-6-P --> F-2,6-bisP (fructose-2,6-bisPhosphate)
an ATP is used to turn the 6 into 2,6
What are the two functions of F-2,6-bisP?
it activates PFK1 to INCREASE glycolysis and control blood glucose concentration
F-2,6-bisP ALSO inhibits gluconeogenesis by inhibiting fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
What two gluconeogenic enzymes does insulin inhibit?
PEPCK & fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
those are two gluconeogenic enzymes, so clearly insulin is PRO glycolysis
In what state would glucagon be released?
in an energy POOR state glucagon will be released to help increase blood glucose concentrations
it''ll activate fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase to help drive gluconeogenesis to make glucose
glucagon will also decrease the activity of PFK2 lowering the amount of F-2,6-bisP that promotes glycolysis
The glycolysis enzyme PFK 1 is inhibited by ___ and this inhibition is relieved by ___. In contrast, the gluconeogenesis enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase is activated by ___ and inhibited by both ___ and __________________
PFK 1: F-6-P --> F-1,6-bisP
inhibited by ATP, activated by AMP
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase: F-1,6-bisP --> F-6-P
inhibited by AMP and F-2,6-bisP, activated by ATP
glucagon causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose which is released into the bloodstream and raises blood glucose levels
it also targets adipose tissue and is a signal of fasting
it's active in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
How does glucagon affect muscle?
it doesn't - muscle cells have NO glucagon receptors
responds to elevated blood sugar to promote glycolysis
causes liver, skeletal muscles, & fat tissue to absorb glucose from the blood and store it as glycogen or triglycerides in fat tissue
it's a signal of feeding
it's active in carbohydrate, lipid, & protein metabolism
An increased concentration of glucose-6-phosphate favors the __________ activity over that of ________
more G-6-P --> hydrolytic glucose-6-phosphatase activity
more glucose --> glucokinase activity to MAKE G-6-P
What happens after a meal when insulin is being secreted?