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  1. Skeletal System includes what



  2. What are the two skeletal sections
    Axial Skeleton 

    ◦Form longitudinal axis

    Appendicular skeleton

    • ◦Bones of limbs and girdles
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  3. What are the five functions of bone
    Support the body

    Protection - soft body organs, skull (brain), vertebrae (spinal cord), rib cage (thorax)

    • Movement-
    • Attach to tendons, use bones as levers(due to attached skeletal muscles)

    Storage - Fat is stored in marrow, minerals (Ca, P)

    • Blood cell formation - In marrow
    • BuMPSS
  4. What are the two types of bone
    • ◦Compact bone
    • –Dense and smooth: homogeneous

    • ◦Spongy bone
    • –Small needle-like pieces of bone and many
    • open spaces
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  5. What are the Four bone classifications
    • Long bones
    • Short bones
    • Flat bones
    • Irregular bones
  6. Describe Long bones
    • ◦Typically longer than wide
    • ◦Have a shaft with heads at both ends ◦Contain mostly compact bone
    • ◦Ex. Femur, Humerus (all bones of limbs, except patella, wrist and ankle bones)
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  7. Describe Short bones
    • ◦General cube-shaped
    • ◦Mostly spongy bone
    • ◦Ex. Carpals, tarsals (wrist, ankle, patella)
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  8. Describe Flat bones
    • ◦Thin and flattened
    • ◦Usually curved
    • ◦Two thin layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them
    • ◦Ex. Skull, ribs and sternum
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  9. Describe Irregular bones
    • ◦Irregular shape
    • ◦Do not fit any other bone category
    • ◦Ex. Hip, Vertebrae
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  10. What are the gross anatomy parts of the long bone
    Diaphysis: Shaft,  compact bone

    Epiphysis: Ends of bone, spongy

    Periosteum: Outside covering of diaphysis, fibrous connective tissue membrane

    Sharpey’s Fibers (perforating): Secures periosteum to underlying bone

    Arteries: Supply bone cells with nutrients

    • Articular Cartilage: Covers external surface of the epiphyses
    • -- Made of hyaline cartilage
    • -- Decreases friction at joint surfaces

    • Medullary Cavity: Cavity of the shaft
    • -- Contains yellow marrow (fat in adults)
    • -- Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation in infants)
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    Articular cartilage
    Proximal epiphysis
    Epiphyseal line
    Medullary cavity (lined by endosteum)
    Distal Epiphysis
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    Compact bone
    Yellow bone marrow
    Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
    Nutrient arteries
    Articular Cartilage
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  13. What are Bone Markings
    Surface features of bones

    Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons and ligaments

    Passages for nerves and blood vessels
  14. What are the categories of bone markings
    ◦Projections and processes- grown out from the bone surface

    ◦Depressions or cavities-indentations

    ◦Holes and Tunnels - Where blood and nerves enter bone
  15. What are the bone marking projections that are the site of muscle and ligament attachments
    Tuberosity - rounded projection

    Crest - narrow, prominent ridge of bone

    Trochanter - large, blunt, irregular surface

    Line - narrow ridge of bone

    Tubercle - small rounded projection

    Epicondyle - raised area above a condyle

    Spine - sharp, slender projection

    Process - any bone prominence
  16. What are the bone markings projections from joints
    Head - bony expansion carried on a narrow neck

    Facet - smooth, nearly flat articular surface

    Condyle - rounded articular projection

    Ramus - armlike bar of bone
  17. What are the bone markings depressions and openings
    Meatus - canal-like passageway

    Sinus - cavity within a bone

    Fossa - shallow, basin-like depression

    Groove - furrow (slight indentation)

    Fissure - narrow, slit-like opening

    Foramen - round or oval opening through a bone
  18. What is an Osteocytes
    • Mature bone cells found within the matrix in tiny cavities called lacunae
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  19. What is an Osteon
    • A unit of bone consisting of a central (Haversian) canal and matrix rings also known as Haversian system
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  20. What is Lacunae
    • Tiny cavities found in the bone matrix with osteocytes
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  21. What are perforating (Volkmann's) canals
    • Communication pathways from the outside of the bone to its interior and the central canals that run into the compact canals at right angles
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  22. What is Central canal (Haversian)
    ◦Opening in the center of an osteon

    • ◦Carries blood vessels and nerves
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  23. What is Lamellae
    • ◦Ring saround the central canal
    • ◦Sites of Lacunae
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  24. What are Canaliculi
    ◦Tiny canals

    ◦Radiate from the central canal to lacunae

    • ◦Form a transport system
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  25. Where does cartilage remain once a person is fully grown
    ◦Bridge of the nose

    ◦Parts of the ribs

  26. What are Epiphyseal plates
    Allow for growth of long bone during childhood
  27. What are the three types of bone cells; two are involved in bone growth
    Osteocystes: Mature Bone Cells

    Osteoblasts: Bone-forming Cells

    Osteoclasts: Bone-destroying Cells
  28. What are the four steps in bone fracture repair
    1.Hematoma is formed (blood-filled swelling)

    2.Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus

    3.Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus

    4.Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch
  29. What three parts is the axial skeleton divided into

    ◦Vertebral Column

    • ◦Bony thorax
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  30. What are Fontanelles
    Fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones of infants

    ◦Allows brain to grow

    ◦Converts to bone within 24months of birth
  31. What is special about the Hyoid bone
    The only bone that does not articulate with another bone

    Serves as a moveable base for the tongue
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  33. What are Paranasal Sinuses
    Hollow portions of bones surround the nasal cavity

    Lightens the skull

    Give resonance and amplification to voice
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  35. What are the bones of the vertebral column
    • Cervical (neck region)
    • ◦C1-C7: Allows for nodding and pivoting of head

    • Thoracic (Only vertebrae to articulate with the ribs)
    • ◦T1-T12: Heart-shaped

    • Lumbar 
    • ◦L1-L5: Massive block-like bodies
    • ◦Sturdiest of the vertebrae

    • Sacrum 
    • ◦Formed via fusion of 5 vertebrae

    • Coccyx
    • ◦Formed via fusion of 3-5 tiny irregular shaped vertebrae
  36. What are the three parts of the bony thorax
    Forms a cage to protect major organs

    Made-up of three parts


    ◦Ribs (24)

    • ◦Thoracic vertebrae
    • -- 7 pairs true

    -- 3 pairs false

    • -- 2 pairs floating
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  37. What are the parts of the Appendicular

    Pectoral girdle(shoulder)

    • Pelvic girdle
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  38. What two bones is the pectoral girdle made of
    ◦Clavicle (collarbone)

    • ◦Scapula (shoulder blade)
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  39. What are the bones of the upper limb
    • The arm:
    • -- Humerus

    • Forearm: 
    • -- Ulna(inner) 
    • -- Radius(outer)

    • Hand: 
    • -- Carpals(wrist);
    • -- Metacarpals (palm) 
    • -- Phalanges (fingers)
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  40. What are the bones of the pelvic girdle
    • Composed of three pairs of fused bones:
    • -- Ilium,
    • -- Ischium
    • -- Pubic bone
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  41. What are the bones of the lower limb
    • Thigh:
    • -- Femur

    • Leg 2 bones:
    • -- Tibia (inner)
    • -- Fibula (outer)

    • Foot:
    • -- Tarsus (ankle);
    • -- Metatarsals (sole);
    • -- Phalanges (toes)
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  42. What is the functional classification of joints
    • Synarthroses
    • -- immovable joints

    • Amphiarthroses
    • -- slightly moveable joints, spine

    • Diarthroses
    • -- freely moveable joints, limbs
  43. What is the structural classification of joints
    • Fibrous joints:
    • -- Generally immovable

    • Synovial joints:
    • -- Freely moveable

    • Cartilaginous joints:
    • -- Immovable or slightly moveable
  44. What are fibrous joints
    Bones united by fibrous tissue

    -- Sutures

    -- Syndesmoses (Allows for more movement then sutures (distal end of tibia and fibula)
  45. What are Cartilaginous joints
    Bones connected by cartilage

    -- Pubic symphysis

    -- Intervertebral joints
  46. What are synovial joints
    Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity

    Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity

    Articulare cartilage (hylaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones

    Joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous articular capsule

    Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid

    Ligaments reinforce the joint
  47. What two structures are associated with synovial joints
    • Bursa:
    • -- Flattened fibrous sacs

    -- Lines with synovial membranes

    -- Filled with synovial fluid

    -- Not actually part of the joint

    • Tendon sheath:
    • -- elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon
Card Set
Identify and locate the bones of the human body Describe the anatomy of bone Describe the physiology of bone Describe the growth of bone
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