1. Stress and panic
    Locus ceruleus
  2. Reward center, pleasure, addiction, fear
    Nucleus accumbensand septal nucleus
  3. Ventral tegmentum and SNc
  4. Basal nucleus of Meynert
  5. area postrema
    responds to emetics
  6. supraoptic nucleus of hypothalamus
  7. paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus
  8. lateral area of hypothalamus
    hunger - inhibited by leptin
  9. ventralmedial area
    satiety - stumulated by leptin
  10. anterior hypothalamus
    cooling, parasympathetic
  11. posterior hypothalamus
    heating, sympathetic
  12. septal nucleus
    sexual urges
  13. Lateral geniculate nucleus
  14. medial geniculate nucleus
  15. ventral posterior nucleus - lateral (VPL)
    body sensation
  16. ventral posterior nucleus - medial (VPM)
    facial sensation
  17. ventral anterior/lateral (VA/VL)
  18. Five F's of the limbic system
    • Feeding
    • Fleeing
    • Fighting
    • Feeling
    • Sex
  19. Important for voluntary movements and making postural adjustments
    Basal ganglia
  20. resting Tremor, cogwheel Rigidity, Akinesia, and Postural instability
    Parkinson's Disease
  21. Contralateral subthalamic nucleus lesion - lost of inhibition of the thalamus throug globus pallidus
  22. Caudate losses ACh and GABA (CAG)
    Huntington's - Chromosome 4
  23. treatment for essential/postural tremor
    beta-blockers - action tremor worses when holding posture,AD
  24. Intention Tremor
    cerebellar dysfunction
  25. Kluver-Bucy syndrome (hyperorality, hypersexuality, disinhibited behavior)
  26. Spatial neglect syndrome (angosia of the contralateral side of the world)
    Right parietal lobe
  27. reduced levels of arousal and wakefulness
    reticular activating system (midbrain)
  28. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
    mammillary bodies (bilateral)
  29. truncal ataxia, dysarthria
    cerebellar vermis
  30. contralateral hemiballismus
    subthalamic nucleus
  31. anterograde amnesia - inability to make new memories
  32. eyes look away from side of lesion
    Paramedial pontine reticular formation (PPRF)
  33. Eyes look toward lession
    Frontal eye fields
  34. cricothyroid muscle is supplied by the:
    external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve
  35. Charcot-Bouchard microaneurysms is associated with
    Chronic hypertension
  36. Wet, wobbly, and wacky (urinary incontinence, dementia, ataxia)
    normal pressure hydrocephalus - does not result in increase in subarachnoid space volume
  37. destruction of anterior horns leading to flaccid paralysis
    poliomyelitis and Werdnig Hoffman disease
  38. degeneration of dorsal roots and dorsal columns
    tabes dorsalis (tertiary syphilis)
  39. damages to the antieor white commissure
    • Syringomeylia - destroys spinothalamic tract, bilateral loss of pain and temperature sensation
    • Seen with Arnold-Chiari II
  40. Dorsal columns and lateral corticospinal tracts and spinocerebellar tracts
    Vitamin B12 neuropathy, Vitamin E deficiency, and Friedreich's ataxia
  41. "floppy baby" with tongue fasciculations - infantile spinal muscular atrophy
    Werdnig-Hoffman disease (similar to Poliomyelitis)
  42. Defect in superoxide dismutase 1 can cause:
  43. melatonin secretion, circadian rhythms
    pineal gland
  44. conjugate vertical gaze center
    superior colliculi
  45. auditory
    inferior colliculi
  46. paralysis of conjugate vertical gaze due to lesion in superior colliculi
    parinaud syndrome
  47. Send autonomic (paraysympathethic) fibers to heart, lungs, and upper GI
    Dorsal motor nucleus
  48. Motor innervation of pharynx, larynx, and upper esophagus
    Nucleus aMbiguus - IX, X, XI
  49. CN I exits
    cribriform plate
  50. CN II exits
    optic canal
  51. CN III, IV, V1, VI exits
    Superior orbital fissure
  52. CN V2 exits
    Foramen Rotundum
  53. CN V3 exits
    Foramen Ovale
  54. Middle meningeal artery exits
    Foramen Spinosum
  55. CN VII, and VIII exits
    internal auditory meatus
  56. CN IX, X, XI and jungular vein exits
    Jugular foramen
  57. CN XII exits
    Hypoglossal canal
  58. Spinal roots of CN XI, brain stem, vertebral arteries
    Foramen magnum
  59. Kuh-Kuh-Kuh
    palate elevation - CN X
  60. la-la-la
    tongue - CN XII
  61. Mi-mi-mi
    lips - CN VII
  62. Muscles of mastication are innervated by:
  63. lateral pterygoid
    Not one of the M's, so OPENS the jaw
  64. palatoglossus muscle is innervated by:
    Vagus nerve
  65. All other glossus muscles are innervated by:
    hypoglossus - CN XII
  66. tensor veli palatini is innervated by:
    mandibular branch - V3
  67. All muscles with palat in their names are innervated by:
    vagus nerve
  68. ciliary muscle contracts
    near vision
  69. Classic galactosemia, galactokinase deficiency, and diabetes all can develop:
  70. decrease bilateral pupillary constriction when light is shone in affected eye (no consensual constriction)
    Marcus Gunn pupil - afferent pupillary defect
  71. What is affected first during compression of the oculomotor nerve?
    parasympathetic output - use Marcus Gunn pupil to assess
  72. lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus is often seen with?
    Multiple Sclerosis
  73. ApoE2 is protective in what condition?
  74. Dementia, aphasia, parkisonian aspects and a change in personality with intracellular aggregated tau proteins
    Pick bodies
  75. alpha-synuclein defect can be found in what condition with hallucinations and parkinsonism?
    Lewy body dementia
  76. Beta-interferon or immunosuppression therapy can be used in what condition?
    Multiple Sclerosis
  77. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
    JC virus usually with AIDS patients
  78. Arylsulfatase A deficiency is linked to
    Metachormatic leukodystrophy - AR lysosomal storage disease - impaired production of myelin sheath
  79. butterfly glioma positive for GFAP in adults
    Glioblastoma multiforme
  80. Psammoma bodies in the brain
  81. S-100 posiive
    schwannoma - usually found at the cerebellopontine angle
  82. chicken-wire capillary pattern in the frontal lobes
  83. GFAP positive in kids with Rosenthal fibers (eosinophilic corskscrew fibers)
    Pilocytic astrocytoma
  84. Small blue cells with rosettes or perivascular pseduorosette pattern of cells
  85. rod-shaped blepharoplasts
  86. Can produce EPO causing secondary polycythemia
  87. darkening brown color of iris is a side effect of:
    Latanoprost (PGF2alpha)
  88. A weak opioid agonist that decreases seizure threshold
  89. induction of anesthesia and short surgical procedures
    barbiturates - thiopental
  90. endoscopy - anesthetic:
  91. anesthetic that causes disorientation, hallucination, and bad dreams
    arylcycloheyxlamines (ketamines)
  92. Which local anesthetic causes severe cardiovascular toxicity
  93. Which local anesthetic can cause arrhythmias
  94. Complication of succinylcholine are:
    Hypercalcemia and Hyperkalemia
  95. use of inhalation anesthetics and succinylcholine can cause:
    malignant hyperthermia
  96. malignant hyperthermia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome can be treated with
  97. what drug used to treat Parkinson's should be avoided in patients with BPH and angle-closure glaucoma?
  98. Which MAO-B inhibitor selectively metabolizes DA over NE and 5-HT?
  99. Which NMDA receptor antagonist is used to treat alzhemier's?
  100. Donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine are all?
    Acetycholinesterase inhibitors used to treat Alzheimer's
  101. Reserpine and tetrabenazine can be used to treat?
  102. haloperidol, a dopamine receptor antagonist can be used to treat?
  103. What drug is countraindicated for patients with CAD or Prinzmetal's angina due to its toxic effect of causing coronary vasospasms
  104. What can precipitate psychosis?
  105. Chronic factitious disorder
    munchausen's syndrome
  106. criminality is associated with
    Anti-social disorder
  107. sel-mutilation and sense of emptiness is associated with
    Borderline personality disorder
  108. A sensitive indicator of alcohol use is:
    GGT levels
  109. Treat Tourette's syndrome with:
  110. Side Effects of Lithium - LMNOP
    • Lithium Side Effects
    • Motor (tremors)
    • Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
    • hypOthyroidism
    • Pregnancy problems
  111. This can be used for generalized anxiety disorders:
  112. TCA toxicity causes: Tri-C's
    • Convulsions
    • Coma
    • Cardiotoxicity
  113. cyproheptadine can be used to treat:
    Serotonin syndrome caused by SSRIs
  114. duloxetine can be used to treat
    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy
  115. venlafaxine can be used to treat:
    generalized anxiety disorder
  116. venlafaxine and duloxetine are both:
    SNRI's - serotonin & NE reuptake inhibitor
  117. This atypical antidepressant can also be used for smoking cessation and causes no sexual side effects:
  118. alpha2 antagonist and potent 5HT2 and 5HT3 receptor antagonist:
  119. Only blockes NE reuptake
  120. Phenelzine is what kind of drug?
    MAO inhibitor!
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