Extras for Bio

  1. A gene isolated from a jellyfish that encodes a small protein, __, emits a green fluorescent light.
  2. In GFP, DNA encoding __ is __ to DNA encoding the protein to be studied, andthe resulting __ is introduced into cells that can be observed under the microscope.
    • GFP
    • fused
    • chimeric DNA
  3. Once inside a cell, the __ expresses a __ consisting of __ fused to the end of the protein to be studied. In most cases, the presence of __ joined to the end of a protein has little or no effect on the movement or function of that protein.
    • chimeric DNA
    • chimeric protein
    • GFP
    • GFP
  4. In the example provided in the textbook, the cells were infected with a strain of the __ in which one of the viral genes (__) is fused to the __.
    • vesicular stomatisis virus
    • VSVG
    • GFP
  5. The use of a virus allows what?
    investigators to follow a relatively synchronous wave of protein movement
  6. __ can be enhanced by use of a virus with a mutant __ protein that is unable to leave the ER of infected cells that are grown at an elevated temp. 
    When the temp is lowered to 32 degrees C, the __ that had accumulated in the ER moves to the Golgi complex, where various processing events occur, and then on to the plasma membrane.
    • Synchrony
    • VSVG
    • fluorescent GFP-VSVG protein
  7. Function of phospholipids
    form bilayers that provide barriers to diffusion of polar solutes
  8. Function of cardiolipin
    activates cytochromes
  9. Funciton of phosphatidylinositol
    source of inositol trphosphate
  10. Function of sphingolipids
    barrier function, activates certain enzymes
  11. Function of glycolipids
    barrier function
  12. Function of cholesterol
    reduces bilayer permeability; modulates membrane fluidity
  13. In freeze fracture replication, after creating a replication by using the fractured surface as a template on which a heavy-metal layer is deposited to provide shadows that accentuate local topography, what occurs?
    • a carbon layer is deposited on top of metal layer to cement the patches of metal into a solid surface--> tissue thawed, removed, discarded
    • only the replica is used
  14. In freeze fracture replication, vvariations in __ cause variations in __.
    • thickness
    • number of penetrating electrons to reach the viewing screen
  15. Less resistance --> __
    Well suited for __
    • more access to cell membrane
    • examining lipid bilayer
  16. Freeze-fracture replication by itself is good, but even better with __.
    freeze etching
  17. Explain free etching.
    • frozen, fractured specimen is exposed to a vacuum at elevated temperature for a few minutes, during which a layer of ice sublimes from exposed surface
    • - Once some ice removed, surface of structure can be coated with heavy metal and carbon to create a metallic replica that reveals both the external and internal structure
  18. Development by __ of deep-etching techniques, in which greater amounts of surface ice are removed, allowed look at cellular organs
    John Heuser
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Extras for Bio