Psyc 2020

  1. Causal VS Correlational
    Causal=(one thing caused another)

    • Correlational = (Just look if two things
    • are related, cannot determine if one event actually triggered/caused another) –
    • ex: Grades/TV
  2. Describe Annectodal
    One persons story/experience with the situation.
  3. Illusory Correlation
    • Illusory correlation: A belief where a
    • relationship exists when in reality it does not.

    Ex: horoscopes
  4. What 3 things does the scientific attitude involve?
    • Curiosity
    • - passion for field.
    • Sketicism
    • - ask questions
    • Humility
    • - Study may be falsified  through peer review
  5. What is pseudoscience?
    • Vague claims
    • Preconceived ideas
    • Not testable
  6. What are the four general goals of science?
    • Description of behavior
    • Prediction of behavior
    • Determine cause of behavior
    • Explanation of behavior
  7. What 3 things must occur to be able to determine cause (causality)?
    • Temporal Precedence
    •      --(cause comes first, then effect)

    • Covariation of the cause & effect
    • in exp observe when cause is present effect occurs and when it is not present it does not occur.

    Elimination of alternative explanations
  8. What are basic and applied research?
    Basic research = research used to gain more facts

    applied research = research used to gain more facts and applying it to help someone
  9. What is a major area of applied research?
    Program Evaluations

    Ex: DARE we found to be counter intuitive
  10. What is a hypothesis?
    A testable prediction often implied by a theory.
  11. If our hypothesis was incorrect you state that by saying:
    Our hypothesis was rejected...
  12. Null Hypothesis
    Want to be able to prove that two things to don't impact one another. To prove the hypothesis wrong.
  13. What are the 5 main sources of ideas?
    • Common Sense
    • Observation of the World Around Us
    • Theories
    • Past Research
    • Practical Problems
  14. 1 - 10 Write out the entire ______
    > 10 Write out the entire _______

    • 1-10 = Word
    • >10  = Number

    Exceptions: Percentages always use #'s, Beginning of sentences, ages, numbers of measurements, sample size (mean median mode)
  15. What are the 5 sections research articles contain?
    • Abstract(summary of hypothesis, procedure,results)
    • Introduction Outline pro-Past research-theories- ur hypot
    • Methods detailed subs(participants,Mater, and Procedure)
    • Results (Narrative form, stat language, and tables/graph)
    • Discussion (results sup hyp? Results/past Res. Future res/ suggestions)
  16. PsycInfo contains articles dated back in the _____/
  17. What does SSCI stand for?
    What is it for?
    • Social Sciences Citation Index
    • Allows you the ability to use the key article method
  18. What should you look for in online articles?
    Is web associated w/ major educational institution research organization?

    • Is info provided on the people who are responsible for the site? 
    • Can you check the credentials  of these individuals?

    Is information current?
  19. Stanley Milgram Study

    Age Group:

    # of Participants that went to last switch:
    What was the voltage for last switch:
    Another word for Participants:

    Measured if authority figure could get people to comply to a demand to hurt another by using pressure.

    • 40 Diverse Male individuals ages 20- 50yo
    • 460 Volts
    • Confederate (fake participant)
  20. Variable must...
    have at least two levels.

    Ex: age, gender, time etc
  21. operational definition =
    a definition of the variable in terms of the operations or techniques the researcher uses to measure or manipulate it:
  22. Construct validity

    What are the indicators of construct validity?
    • Construct Validity =  the degree to which a measurement device accurately measures the theoretical construct it is designed
    • to measure

    aka: It is measuring what it says it is measuring

    Face Validity – (Just going with your gut feeling and the measure appears to measure what it is supposed to measure.)

    Content Validity – (Make sure to check how other people are defining what you are a about to define.)

    Criterion-Oriented Validity:
  23. Positive linear Relationship:
    Negative Linear Relationship:
    Curvilinear relationship:
    No Relationship:
    Positive linear Relationship: Both increase or both Decease

    Negative Linear Relationship:1 Inc. & 1 Dec or 1 Dec & 1 Inc

    Curvilinear relationship: Increase then becomes decrease

    No Relationship: None of the above.
  24. Pearson Correlation Coefficient
    Scale ranges from...
    • Measure how strongly two variables are related.
    • -1 --> +1
  25. Research is aimed at reducing.... by.....
    Random variability: (uncertainty abt relationships btwen variables)

    By:Identifying systems between relationships
  26. What are the two approaches to the study of relationships amongst variables?
    • ** Nonexp: allows us to observe covariation (aka correlation) between two variables but DOES NOT measure cause and effect

    Experimental: 1 Variab. Manipulated & 1 Not = then Measure to determine if causal relationship exists
  27. Which group receives the treatment and which group does not and is the comparison group?
    • Treatment = Experimental
    • No treatment = Control group
  28. Independent variable = Variable being manipulated
    Dependent Variable = Variable being measured

    Where is the IV & DV plotted on a graph?
    • Ex: Caffine vs Bloodpressure
    • IV = Caffine
    • DV = Blood Pressure

    • IV = X Axis
    • DV = Y Axis
  29. Validity = Truth / Accurate representation

    Three types of Validity
    Construct Validity
    Internal Validity
    External Validity
    1)  Construct validity = the degree to which a measurement device accurately measures the theoretical construct it is designed to measure.

    • 2)  Internal validity =
    • the certainty with which results of an experiment can be   attributed to the manipulation of the IV rather
    • than to some other, confounding variable

    • 3)  External validity = the degree to which the
    • results of an experiment may be generalized
    • to other populations and settings.

    Ex: Too small of a sample size can effect external validity (ask 5 ppl about tuition increase & generalize that to whole population)

    • Solution:
    • random sample and large enough to be representative for the whole population.
  30. Extraneous Variables
    Confounding Variables:
  31. Reliability =
    the degree to which a measure is consistent

    ex: scale example = a reliable scale/test does not show much variability (change)
  32. We can assess the sability of a measure using?
    Symbolized by:
    A correlation of 0 =
    When negative =
    • Pearson Correlation Coeficcient: -1  0 +1
    • r
    • 0 = Two variables not related
    • When negative = there is a negative linear relationship
  33. Methods of assessing reliability:(6)
    For measure to accepted as reliable it has to be at least 80%
    • Test-retest Reliability:
    • A reliability coefficient determined by the correlation between scores on a measure given at one time with scores on the same measure given at a later time
    • Alternate Forms Reliability
    • is sometimes used and involves administering 2 different forms of the same test (to the same people at two points in time)
    • Internal Consistency Reliability = Reliability
    • assessed with data collected at one point in time with multiple measures of a psychological construct
    • Split-Half Reliability
    • You could determine the correlation between the total score on ½ the measure with the total score on the other ½ of the measure
    • Cronbach’s Alpha
    • another indicator of internal consistency reliability. (Cronbach Alpha compares every single item to seeif it is measuring same thing.)
    • Inter-rater Reliability = An indicator of reliability that examines the agreement of observations made by 2 or more raters.
    •   e.g., Linda & Mike observe/record Billy’s
    • aggressive behavior on the playground

      -People make mistakes.  At least 2 raters. Interobserver Reliabilty ( IOA)
  34. Anecdotal Evidence:
    One person’s experience / story
  35. Illusory Correlation:
    Belief of a relationship when one does not exist. OR belief in astronger relation THAN does exist.
  36. Peer– review process:
    Other ppl have read your research and agree on your research and methodology. Once accepted ~year later its publish.
  37. What are the goals of science? (if listed out make sure you could recognize
    • Description of behavior
    • Prediction of behavior
    • Determine cause of behavior
    • Explanation of behavior
  38. What 3 things must happen to determine causal relationship?
    1. Temporal Precedence: Cause must proceed effect

    • 2. Covariation of Cause & effect:
    • when cause is present effect occurs

    • 3. Elimination of all others- Difference between basic research & applied research (ex: program
    • evaluation DARE)
  39. - Difference between basic research & applied research (ex: program evaluation DARE)
  40. How do you correctly word a hypothesis?
    • A hypothesis can be supported or rejected
    • by the research

    • We never say “we have proven” or “we proved” because there can be a level of
    • error.

    • Use
    • If hypothesis was correct we say:
    • “Our research supported our hypothesis”

    • If our hypothesis was incorrect you state that by saying “our hypothesis was
    • rejected..”
  41. What is included in the anatomy of research article?
    • Abstract
    • Intro
    • Method
    • Results
  42. Difference between PSYCINFO & PSYCARTICLES
    PSYC Info: Computer based, Put out by American psychological association, only shows abstracts, then can be sent to full text if available.

    PSYCArticles: Can get full text articles
  43. What is social science index?
    • Allows you to do key article methods
    • It gives you a list of all articles that sited that article which you searched.
  44. Zimbardo Prison Study
    Participant Makeup:
    Length of Exp:
    Why was it ended early?
    • 1971
    • Standford Basement
    • Male College Students
    • Assigned roles = Guards psychological toture
  45. Belmont report reflects:
    Define Beneficence:
    Define Autonomy:
    Reflects APA ethics code.

    Beneficence: Principle that research should have more beneficial effect and minimal harmful.

    • Autonomy: principles of individuals can make decision to
    • participate or not. NEED INFORMED CONSENT. – Need signature – Minors cannot consent/mental retardation/major mental illnesses like schizophrenia.  Parents must consent for child and then child
    • must give assent.

  46. Is it ok to use Deception:                                           

    What is IRB –
    Deception: Still ok to use – but should be the last resort – and debriefing must be done ASAP – Access to professional help.                          

    IRB – Institutional review board: reviews research and approves it or not – one member from outside source
  47. Differences between lab & field research
    Lab research: greater control over extraneous variables.

    Field research: We might lose control but responses may be more authentic
  48. Interval Scales:
    Ratio Scale:
    Ordinal Scale:
    Nominal Scale:
    • Interval Scales:involves meaningful and equal differences between the values        on the scale (things with NO true zero)
    • ex:e.g., temperature, Elevation -- Time --
    • Ratio Scale:involve an absolute zero point that indicates the absence of the   variable being measured. ( it CAN HAVE a true zero)
    • Ordinal Scale:involve rank ordering (and numerical values are limited not  precisely measurable)
    • ex:movie ranking - One star, Two stars, Three stars, Four stars Freshman, Sophomore, Junior, Senior.

    Nominal Scale:involve categories (and have NO numerical or quantitative properties)
  49. Give an example of each of these:

    Naturalistic Observation:
    Systemic Observation:
    Case Study:
    Archival Research:
    Systematic observation: usually in lab & already have hypothesis generated.

    Case study: Usually conducted if someone possesses a rare trait.

    Archival research: No need for informed consent * how to we know if data is reliable.
  50. The Belmont Report outlined what 3 basic ethical principles:
    • Beneficence
    • Autonomy
    • Justice
  51. Tuskegee Syphilis Study, in which ___  poor
    African Americans in ______ were not
    treated for syphilis in order to  track the long-term effects of the disease even after _______ was discovered.
    • 399 of 600
    • Alambama
    • Penicillin
  52. Types of criterion-oriented validity: (4)

    • 1)  Predictive validity – scores on the measure predict behavior on a   criterion measured at a time in the future
    • eX: students who score high on LSAT it also reflects on their grades.
    • 2)Concurrent validity – scores on the measure are related to a  criterion measured at the same time.
    • ex: ppl score high on shyness scale & also score high on stress response in social setting.
    • 3) Convergent validity – scores on the measure are related to other measures of the same construct.
    • Ex: when ppl score high for depression they also score high on another consctruct for depression.

    4) Discriminant validity – scores on the measure are NOT related to  other measures that are theoretically different.

Card Set
Psyc 2020
Chapter 1-6 Test