two or more ribs fractured in two or more places. Characterized by paradoxical breathing.
How do you treat flail chest?
Splinting the chest and providing positive pressure ventilation
What is traumatic asphyxia?
severe compression of the thorax. Heart is compressed and blood is driven up into the upper thorax, neck and brain causing swelling and ecchymosis of the neck and face.
What is pneumothorax?
Collection of air in the pleural space that results in collapse of the lung.
Two mechanisms that cause pneumothorax?
1. Penetrating. When a missile (bullet) or sharp object penetrates the chest wall or lung.
2. Blunt. Blunt force is applied to thoracic cavity causing it to rupture of tear.
What is the "paper bag effect"?
pneumothorax that occurs when a person takes a deep breath and holds it just before an automobile collision. Air trapped inside causes the lung to rupture, like a paper bag.
sucking chest wound
pneumothorax without an open wound. Like when a broken rib pierces the lung and causes air to flow into the pleural space.
How is an open pneumothorax treated?
1. ensuring an airway
2. manual pressure and occlusive dressing on 3 sides to ensure no additional air enters, but air can get out
3. supplemental O2 and rapid transport.
What is tension pneumothorax?
When a patient has pneumothorax and air in chest cavity is trapped within the pleural space. Can cause collapse and shifting of chest contents, which can be shifted to the opposite side.
Signs of a tension pneumothorax.
1. Breath sounds absent on affected side.
2. Distended neck veins.
3. signs of shock
4. Shifting of trachea away from affected side.
What is a Hemothorax?
When a blood vessel in the chest cavity is injured and blood accumulates in pleural space.
What is a pulmonary contusion?
bruising of the lungs. swelling and buildup of fluids can cause a decrease of O2 into capillaries
collection of blood in the sac surrounding the heart. Caused by a penetrating injury to the heart. Restricts blood flow to and from the heart. Signs would be distended neck veins and narrowing blood pressure.
aorta can tear as a result of a deceleration. 80% of pts die on the scene