PSY 336 Exam 1 (Final)

  1. Aristotle’s Rhetoric – how do we persuade others?  Emotions depend on what we believe, our evaluations – why was this stance unique?
    • A hearer is more likely to believe in a good person than a bad person
    • People are persuaded when what is said stirs emotions
    • People are persuaded by arguments that seem truthful
  2. Charles Darwin – The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

    Where do our emotions come from?
    Why did he argue that emotions are universal?
    Habits (reflex-life mechanisms) that in our evolutionary or individual past had once been useful

    Emotions link us to our past → to the past of our ancestors and to out own infancy
  3. William James – James-Lange Theory of Emotions
    • James reverse the traditional belief that emotion results from perception of an event
    • Perception causes bodily reactions that are then experienced as emotions
    • The experience of emotions is the set of changes of the autonomic nervous system
    • Bear → Run Away → "fear"
  4. Phineas Gage – general location of brain damage and behavioral repercussions. Why is his story important?
    • Damage to Orbital Frontal region
    • Affected ability to anticipate future and plan accordingly within complex social environment, sense of responsibility toward self and others, ability to orchestrate one's survival deliberately, at the command of one's free will

    First case to suggest that damage to specific regions of the brain might affect personality and behavior
  5. General functions of cerebral cortex versus subcortical structures in emotional behavior as evidenced by the work of Walter Hess (and Walter Cannon)
    • Subcortical Regions
    • Associated with emotions (e.g., emygdala, hypothalamus, limbic system)

    • Cerebral Cortex
    • Modulate the output of these subcortical structures
    • Emotions would be uncoordinated, uncontrolled with damage
  6. Schachter & Singer (1962) experiment

    General methodology and results
    • Subjects injected with epinephrine (adrenaline)
    • Uninformed = heightened emotions
    • Informed = less emotions
  7. Dutton & Aron (1974) experiments

    General methodology and results of both experiments
    • Subjects had female approach them so sexual imagery increased
    • Effect increased walking across 200 ft bridge
  8. Be familiar with the temporal characteristics/differences between expressions, autonomic changes, self-reported emotions, moods, emotional disorders, and personality traits.

    Differences between emotion and mood
    • Emotions and most autonomic changes: last a few seconds
    • Self-reported emotions: few minutes and few hours
    • Moods: hours, days, or weeks; lacks intentionality
    • Emotional disorders: weeks or months
    • Personality traits: last a lifetime
  9. Darwin’s theory of evolution – be familiar with process of natural selection and all pertinent terms

    Related terms to know:  sexual selection pressures (inter- versus intra-), adaptation, epiphenomenon, exaptation
    • Theory of Evolution
    • The reproductive capacity of all living organisms allows for many more offspring that can  survive in a given environment
    • Among the offspring of any species, there are vast individual differences, some of which are more conducive to survival than other
    • This results in the survival of the fittest

    • Natural selection: Characteristics that allow the individual to be adapted to the environment are selected for; disadvantageous characteristics are selected against
    • Selection Pressures: Features of the physical or social environment that determines how individuals need to evolve in order to survive and reproduce
    • Intrasexual Competition: Occurs within a sex for access to mates
    • Intersexual Competition: Process by which one sex selects specific kinds of traits in the other sex
    • Adaptation: Genetically based traits that allow organisms to respond well to specific selection pressures, and to survive and reproduce
    • Epiphenomenon: Traits hat are thought to be byproducts of other adaptions; serve no apparent evolutionary function in-and-of themselves
    • Exaptation: A process in which a structure or feature acquired a function that is different than the original function
  10. In what ways are emotions adaptations?
    • Emotions have some basis in our genes
    • Enable rapid orientation to events in the environment
    • Coordinate the cardiovascular & respiratory systems, various muscle groups, and facial expressions to enable more adaptive responses to events in the environment
  11. Be familiar with the 2 different self-construals
    • Independent Self-Construal (Individualism)
    • The self is autonomous and separate from others
    • Assert one's distinctiveness and independence
    • When explaining human behavior, the focus is on internal causes, such as one's own dispositions or preferences (personality), which are thought of as stable across time and social context

    • Interdependent Self-Construal (Collectivism)
    • The self is fundamentally connected with other people
    • Imperative to find one's status, and role within the community and other collectives
    • In explaining human behavior, the emphasis is on the social context and the situational influences on behavior
  12. Be familiar with the values approach to studying cultural
    variation in emotional expression

    Hypercognzed; hypocognized
    • Seeks to understand cultural differences in emotion in terms of values
    • These values govern how we as members of a culture coexist in communities and accomplish tasks like allocating resources
    • Members of cultures that differ in the specific values should experience different elicitors of emotions related to that value

    • Hypercognized: Emotion is recognized, has special names, and is the subject of social discussion
    • Hypocognized: Emotions that are barely noticed in some cultures; not conceptualized or commented on
  13. Cultural differences in display rules – general methodologies and results of Ekman & Friesen (1972)
    • Thought to influence how and to whom it is appropriate to express different emotions
    • Learn these rules from the people around us, and cultures vary somewhat in their rules and expectations

    • Ekman & Friesen
    • When alone, they displayed similar facial expressions
    • During phase 3, Japanese smiled more and inhibited negative expressions more than Americans
  14. What are the similarities AND differences between evolutionary and cultural
    approaches to emotion?
    • Similarities:
    • Both assume emotions contribute solutions to basic problems of social living
    • Both assume emotions help humans form attachments, take care of offspring, fold into hierarchies, and maintain long-term friendships
    • Once an emotion-eliciting appraisal occurs , the corresponding emotional experience and nervous system changes are pretty sure to follow no matter what culture you grew up in
    • The frequency of various appraisals can differ substantially from culture to culture, so that a given emotion may be experienced quite a lot in one culture but not so much in another
    • Different cultures can have their own rules about how people should act when they experience an emotion, depending on the exact situation

    • Differences:
    • What is an emotion?
    • Evolutionary Approach: Biological processes
    • Cultural Approach: Language, beliefs, roles

    • Are emotions universal?
    • Evolutionary Approach: Yes
    • Cultural Approach: Possibly not

    • What are the origins of emotions?
    • Evolutionary Approach: Environment of evolutionary adaptedness
    • Cultural Approach: Practices, institutions, values

    • Individual functions
    • Evolutionary Approach: Action readiness
    • Cultural Approach: Reify intentions and values

    • Dyadic functions
    • Evolutionary Approach: Social coordination
    • Cultural Approach: Reify roles, identities, and ideologies
  15. Facial expression in coordinating social interaction – know the informative, evocative, and incentive functions
    Informative function: Not only do emotional displays provide reliable information about the sender's current emotions, they also signal the sender's relationship with the target

    Evocative function: Trigger specific responses in perceivers

    • Incentive function: inviting desired social behavior
    • Ex: warm touch to children as reward
Card Set
PSY 336 Exam 1 (Final)
Exam 1