consumer behavior

  1. personal consumer
    • The individual who buys goods and services for his or her own use, for
    • household use, for the use of a family member, or for a friend.
  2. organizational consumer
    • A business, government agency, or other institution (profit or
    • nonprofit) that buys the goods, services, and/or equipment necessary for the
    • organization to function
  3. developing the marketing concept
    Production orientation, Sales orientation, marketing concept
  4. marketing mix
    product, price, promotion, place
  5. impact of digital technology
    marketers have more products and services, instantaneous exchanges, collects and analyzes data. consumers have power and information
  6. qualitative research
    Depth Interviews, Focus Groups, Projective Techniques, Metaphor Analysis
  7. depth interview
    • Also called one-on-one interview, Usually 20 minutes to 1 hour, Nonstructured, Interviewer will often probe to get more feedback (see following slide for probing), Session is usually
    • recorded
  8. qualitative collection
    • 8-10 participants, Respondents are
    • recruited through a screener questionnaire, Lasts about 2 hours, Always taped or videotaped to assist analysis, Often held in front of two-way mirrors, Online focus groups are growing
  9. metaphor analysis
    Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) combines collage research and metaphor analysis to bring to the surface the mental models and the major themes or constructs that drive consumer thinking and behavior.
  10. looking in
    qualitative, looking at social media and blogs
  11. quantitative research
    observation, experimentation, survey questionairres
  12. value proposition
    • expressed through promotion, stating the product’s or service’s capacity to deliver
    • specific benefits.
  13. demographic segmentation
    age, gender, marital status, family life cycle, income, education
  14. geodemographic segmentation
    Based on geography and demographics, People who live close to one another are similar
  15. psychographics
    lifestyles, activities, interests, and opinions
  16. sociological
  17. anthropological
  18. consumer specific segmentation bases
    usage rate, usage situation, benefit segmentation, perceived brand loyalty, brand relationship
  19. concentrated marketing
    one segment
  20. differentiated marketing
    Several segments with individual marketing mixes
  21. motivation
    driving force within individuals that impels them to action.
  22. the essence of the marketing concept. 
    Marketers do not create them but can make consumers aware of them.
  23. innate needs
    Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives
  24. acquired needs
    Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are generally psychological and considered secondary needs
  25. generic goals
    general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs
  26. product specific goals
    specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals
  27. positive motivation
    A driving force toward some object or condition, Approach Goal, A positive goal toward which behavior is directed
  28. negative motivation
    A driving force away from some object or condition, Avoidance Goal, A negative goal from which behavior is directed away
  29. substitute goal
    Are used when a consumer cannot attain a specific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need, dispel tension, may replace original goal over time
  30. failure to achieve goal results in
  31. rational motives
    consumers select objective goals, price, size, weight
  32. emotional motives
    pride, fear, status
  33. those who raise goals after meeting old ones
    raising level of aspiration
  34. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    physiological needs, safety and security needs, social needs, ego needs, self-actualization
  35. trio of needs
    Power, Affiliation, Achievement
  36. measuring motives
    qualitative: metaphor analysis, storytelling, word association and sentence completion
  37. showing pictures and listening to what the consumer says about them
    Thematic Apprehension Tests
  38. Personality
    Personality reflects individual differences, is consistent and enduring, can change
  39. Freudian Theory
    Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation
  40. Non-Freudian Theory
    Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality
  41. Trait Theory
    Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits
  42. ID
    Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction
  43. super ego
    Individual’s internal expression of society’s       moral and ethical codes of conduct
  44. ego
    Individual’s conscious control that balances the demands of the id and superego
  45. Dogmaticism
    A personality trait that reflects the degree of rigidity a person displays toward the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to his or her own established beliefs
  46. Inner-directedness
    rely on own values when evaluating products, Innovators
  47. other-directedness
    look to others, less likely to be innovators
  48. Optimum Stimulation Level
    A personality trait that measures the level or amount of novelty or complexity that individuals seek in their personal experiences, High OSL consumers tend to accept risky and novel products more readily than low OSL consumers.
  49. sensation seeking
    The need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and experience. And the willingness to take social and physical risks for the sensations.
  50. Variety-Novelty Seeking
    VaMeasures a consumer’s degree of variety seeking. Examples include: Exploratory Purchase Behavior, Use Innovativeness, Vicarious Exploration
  51. Need For Cognition
    A person’s craving for enjoyment of thinking, Individual with high NFC more likely to respond to ads rich in product information
  52. Different Self Images
    Actual Self Image, Ideal Self Image, Social Self Image, Ideal Social Self-Image, Expected Self Image, Out-to Self
  53. sensation
    is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuli, stimulus is any unit of input to any of the senses.
  54. absolute threshold
    lowest level where senses pick something up, varies by individual
  55. sensory adaption
    when consumers get used to a sensation. used to a product, ad, etc
  56. differential threshold
    Minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli, Just Noticeable Difference, the stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the additional intensity needed for the second stimulus to be perceived as different.
  57. perceptual selection
    consumers subconsciously which of the stimuli they are going to perceive. depends on a previous experience or motives at the time
  58. nature of the stimulus
    product’s physical attributes, package design, brand name, advertising
  59. contrast
    advertisers use extreme color, size to create stopping power while shopping
  60. expectations
    Based on familiarity, previous experience or expectations.
  61. motives
    Needs or wants for a product or service
  62. selective exposure
    consumers seek out messages which are pleasant, they can sympathize, reassure them of good purchases
  63. selective attention
    heightened awareness when stimuli meet their needs, consumers prefer different messages and medium
  64. perceptual defense
    screening out of stimuli which are threatening
  65. perceptual blocking
    consumers avoid being bombarded by tuning out, tiVo
  66. interpretation
    stereotypes, physical appearances, descriptive terms, first impressions, halo effect
  67. umbrella positioning
    overall image of the company where many products can be featured (disney, apple)
  68. positioning based on a certain benefit
    subways healthy
  69. perceived price
    if price is unfair that affects perception
  70. reference pricing
    the reference price we compare prices to
  71. internal reference price
    price we have in our memory
  72. perceived quality of products: extrinsic cues
    pricing, image, or storage
  73. intrinsic cues
    the physical characteristics of the product
  74. perceived risk
    The degree of uncertainty perceived by the consumer as to the consequences (outcome) of a specific purchase decision. the more expensive the higher the risk.
  75. functional risk
    the risk that the product will not perform as expected
  76. physical risk
    risk to self and others
  77. financial risk
    the product will not be worth its cost
  78. psychological risk
    a poor product choice will hurt the consumer's ego
  79. time risk
    too much time wasted in purchasing product
  80. social risk
    the choice of the product might lead to social embarrassment
  81. how consumers handle risk
    seek information, stay brand loyal, select brand image, rely on store image, buy the most expensive model, seek reassurance
Card Set
consumer behavior