Benefits and Risk Stratification

  1. Benefits of Physical Activity
    • Increased cardiovascular and respiratory function
    • Decreased risk of all causes of mortality
    • Decreased CVD and CAD risk
    • Better overall quality of life, function and mood
  2. Purpose of Health Screening
    • Identify individuals with contraindications for exclusion
    • Identify individuals that need medically supervised programs
    • Detection of individuals with risk factors that need testing and/or medical clearance
    • Recognition of Special needs
  3. Screening Provide Information on...
    • Health history
    • Current medical conditions
    • Risk factors
    • Signs/symptoms
    • Current physical activity/exercise habits
    • Medications
  4. Self-guided Screening
    Initiated and guided by individual with little or no input from exercise or health/fitness professional
  5. PAR-Q
    Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire
  6. Risk Stratification Low
    • 1 or less risk factors for CVD
    • Examination or clearance not necessary
  7. Risk Stratification Medium
    • 2 or more risk factors for CVD
    • Low to moderate intensity OK
    • Clearance and testing for Vigorous >60% VO2R
  8. Risk Stratification High
    • 1 or more signs/symptoms or diagnoses of cardiovascular, pulmonary and/or metabolic disease.  
    • Clearance needed before any physical activity
  9. Signs and/or Symptoms of cardiovascular, pulmonary or metabolic disease
    • Pain/discomfort in arms, chest, jaw, neck or surrounding areas
    • Shortness of Breath at rest or mild exertion
    • Dizziness or syncope
    • Orthopnea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
    • Ankle Edema
    • Palpitations or tachycardia
    • intermittent claudication
    • Known Heart Murmur
    • Unusual fatigue or shortness of breath with usual activities
  10. Atherosclerotic CVD Risk Factors for Risk Stratification
    • Age
    • Family History
    • Cigarette Smoking
    • Sedentary Lifestyle
    • Obesity
    • Hypertension
    • Dyslipidemia
    • Prediabetes
  11. RF Age
    • Men 45 or older
    • Women 55 or older
  12. RF Family History
    Myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization or sudden death of first degree male <55 or woman <65
  13. RF Cigarette Smoke
    Current or within 6 months
  14. Sedentary Lifestyle
    Not doing at least 30min of moderate physical activity (40-60% VO2R) on at least 3 days of the week for at least 3 months
  15. Obesity
    • BMI 30kg*m^2 or higher or
    • Waist >40in for men and >35 for women
  16. Hypertension
    • SBP 140mm Hg or higher and/or DBP 90mm Hg or higher on 2 separate occasions
    • Or on hypertensive medication
  17. Dyslipidemia
    • Low-density Lipoprotein LDL = 130mm*dl or higher.
    • HDL = 40mm*dl or lower
    • Or on lipid lowering medication
    • If not available total is 200mm*dl or higher
  18. Prediabetes
    • Impaired Fasting Glucose IFG = fasting plasma glucose 100 but under 126mg*dl
    • Or Impaired Glucose Tolerance = 2hr oral glucose tolerance test OGTT 140 but less than 200 mg*dl on 2 seperate occasions.
  19. Negative Risk Factor
    HDL 60mg*dl or higher
Card Set
Benefits and Risk Stratification
benefits and risk stratification of physical fitness