Pharmacology - Chapter 1

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  1. a way of taking meds as an injection
  2. Long lasting medication given IM
    repository form
  3. Drug released over a certain amount of time 
    to maintain its concentration in the system.
    sustained-release formula
  4. Cough Drop, something to soothe the throat
  5. Liquid dose form in an alcohol solution admin. PO
  6. Drug suspended within an oil or liquid fat
  7. Topically applied dose form; drug is dissolved in alcohol
  8. Drug made from process animal organs (pancreas/thyroid) and plants
  9. Solid (powdered) dose form covered in gelatin
    gel caps
  10. Semi-solid dose form that liquefies at body temperature
  11. Sucrose or other sugar based liquid dose form admin. PO
  12. Semi Solid dose form that does not melt at body temperature
  13. Drug form formulated to be protected against stomach acid
    enteric coated tablet
  14. Drug produced by companies other than the original developer
  15. Small, airtight glass containing drug, used one time
  16. Type of drug meant to be absorbed over a long time after being injection
    repository or deposit
  17. Ingredient of a drug formula that includes preservatives, stabilizers, liquid media into
    which the drug is dissolved or suspended
    inert ingredient
  18. term that means the “reason” or the “condition” for which a drug is used
  19. any use of a drug other than approved by the FDA
    extra-label or off-label
  20. any effect of the drug other than it intended
    adverse effects or side effects
  21. Identify the proprietary name in the following sentence: "Cats should never be given Tylenol or any acetaminophen product."
  22. A precaution is a condition or situation in which a drug should not be given. True or False
    False - it would be a contraindication
  23. "10 mg/lb every 6 hours for 3 days" is an example of a dose, and "250 mg" is an example of a dosage. True or False
    False - these are reversed. A dose is given one time.
  24. Extra-label drugs can be legally used by veterinarians in animals intended for use as human food. True or False
    True. They must follow the guidelines for their use however.
  25. Suspensions must be shaken before administering; solutions do not need to be shaken. True or False
  26. Troches are commonly used with veterinary patients. True or False
    False - these are lozenges to be held in the mouth. Veterinary patients will not do this.
  27. The "circle R" symbol indicates that the drug is restricted to use only by a veterinarian. True or False
    False - the "circle R" symbol indicates a copyrighted logo or drug name
  28. The Animal Medicinal Drug Use Clarification Act of 1994 gave veterinarians the authority to use approved animal drugs in an extra-label manner. True or False
  29. You are speaking at a local high school day about the veterinary technology profession. As you are describing the education required to become a credentialed veterinary technician, one of the students raises his hand and asks, "Why do veterinary technicians have to learn about drugs? After all, they aren't going to be veterinarians!" How might you address this legitimate question.
    Today's veterinary technician cannot diagnose, do surgery, or prescribe treatment or medications, but the veterinary technician needs to understand how the drug works, its uses and contraindications, and the signs of adverse reactions to properly monitor in-hospital patients, to detect any possible adverse reactions early, and to educate clients or animal owners about the drug or if they have a question.
  30. The veterinarian has given a client a prescription. On the prescription is marked "generic drug can be substituted." After the veterinarian has left, the client has several questions for you: What is a generic drug? How is it different from a regular drug? Why are generic form of drugs so much less expensive that trade name drugs? Are generic drugs as good as the better-known drugs?
    A generic drug is a drub manufactured by a company other than the original parent company. Generic drugs are less expensive because the generic drug company did not have to make the tremendous financial investment required to research, develop, test, and market the original drug. Generic drugs are required to have the same amount and type of active ingredient as the parent brand of drug. They are generally considered to be equivalent to the parent drug, although minor differences in the types of inert ingredients may affect the drug's performance in the body.
  31. Mrs. Jones is a well-informed client. She dutifully researches the information on medications for her pet. When she asks you "What is the reason for having an enteric coating on a tablet?" for a medication her pet is taking, what should you tell her?
    The enteric coating protects the medication from the acid in the stomach. Acid can denature or destroy some types of drugs; thus the enteric coating allows the drug to pass through the stomach to the less-acidic environment of the intestine, where it can dissolve and be absorbed.
  32. Mr. Smith has some respiratory medication that is very similar to the medication his dog is prescribed. But his dog's medication is marked SR for "sustained release." Mr. Smith wants to know how a sustained-release tablet is different from a regular tablet. How do you respond?
    SR is commonly put on the label of sustained-release oral medications. Sustained release means that the drug is dissolved or released over a longer period of time, thus supplying amounts of drug to be absorbed for a longer duration.
  33. Which liquid formulation of a drug can be safely given intravenously, as a solution, or as a suspension? Which needs to be shaken before administration?
    Suspension should never be given intravenously. Suspensions always need to be shaken (sometimes carefully, as in the case of insulin) to equally disperse the drug within the liquid medium before removal of the drug from the bottle or vial.
  34. If the standard injectable form of a drug is given every 12 hours, is the respository form more likely to be given every 6 hours or every 96 hours? Would it be the same for a depot drug?
    A repository drug is a depot drug. Both are designed to be absorbed over a long period after being injected into the body. Therefore the dosage interval should be longer between injections of a depot or repository drug than a nondepot drug.
  35. Mr. Jones found a compound for hypothyroidism (low levels of thyroid hormone) on the internet. It is listed as an extract. What is an extract, and how is it different from a regular drug? He notes that the extract is much less expensive than the other drug formulations. Why are extracts fairly inexpensive? Do extracts have potential problems?
    An extract is derived from plant or animal parts. It is relatively cheaper to produce than chemically synthesizing the drug. However, some inconsistency in the amount of active ingredient occurs in some extracts.
  36. An owner reports an unusual side effect for a drug the veterinarian prescribed. To whom should such information be reported?
    The Food and Drug Administration. It is also advisable for the veterinarian to contact the technical support personnel at the drug company about any reaction he or she suspects is from the drug.
  37. The veterinarian makes the statement that a drug "would be indicated for disease X but contraindicated for condition Y." What does this mean?
    The veterinarian is saying to use the drug for disease X but if condition Y exists, the drug should not be used.
  38. extra-label use - legitimate and legal?
    The owner of a cow telephones to describe the clinical signs that the cow is showing. The veterinarian dispenses and extra-label drug for the cow that has been used to treat other cattle on adjoining farms.
    Not appropriate. A valid veterinarian/client/patient relationship has not been established because the veterinarian has not seen the animal.
  39. extra-label use - legitimate and legal?
    The veterinarian dispenses an off-label drug because it is as effective as the FDA-approved drug but half the price.
    Not appropriate. If there is an FDA-approved drug form for the condition, that drug formulation is the only one that can be used.
  40. extra-label use - legitimate and legal?
    After making a farm call, the veterinarian leaves a bottle of medication with a livestock producer to use on any other livestock showing similar signs, thus saving the producer the cost of multiple farm calls.
    Not appropriate. No veterinarian/client/patient relationship is established for the other animals. Plus, the veterinarian has transferred the responsibility of diagnosis to the livestock producer.
  41. extra-label use - legitimate and legal?The veterinarian uses an off-label drug on a producing dairy cow that he has examined and tells the dairy farmer not to send the cow to slaughter for 3 weeks because of the worry over drug residues.
    Maybe. Three weeks may or may not be long enough of a withdrawal time. The law requires a significantly extended withdrawal time for extra-label use drugs. A longer period would be preferable.
  42. extra-label use - legitimate and legal?
    The veterinarian examines a goat and dispenses a medication used in calves because veterinary journals have published studies showing the drug is effective in goats.
    Possibly appropriate if the drug is properly labeled and records are maintained. Goats and sheep are minor species and therefore it is not uncommon to use cattle medications in these species because there are very few, if any, medications specifically approved for use in these minor species.
  43. extra-label use - legitimate and legal?
    The veterinarian examines a dairy cow, determines that an off-label drug would be the best alternative to treat the condition, informs the livestock producer of the withdrawal times according to FDA guidelines, writes the information into the record, then dispenses it in a bottle with the cow's ID tab number and the drug name on it.
    Good use of following the requirements for extra-label use. Make sure the label has the veterinarian's name and the active ingredient listed on it.
Card Set
Pharmacology - Chapter 1
Pharmacology - Dr. Younger
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