History I

  1. Voltaire
    • Who: Francois-Marie Arouet
    • When: 1694-1778
    • What: French Enlightenment Writer & Philosopher famous for advocacy of civil liberties (ie. freedom of religion; free trade)
    • Historical Significance:
    • one of several Enlightenment thinkers
    • born in Paris, France
    • outspoken supporter of social reform despite strict censorship laws
    • made works to criticize the religious dogma and French institutions of his day
    • idea influenced the French and American revolutions
    • was exiled to Great Britain
    • liked the idea of Great Britain's constitutional monarchy vs. French's absolute monarchy (published Philosophical Letters on the English)
  2. Cogito Ergo Sum
    • Who: Rene Descartes
    • When: French Revolution
    • What: "I think therefore I am."
    • Historical Significance:
    • if someone is wondering whether or not they exist, that is in and of itself proof that they do exist
    • fundamental element of Western philosophy
    • written in French: reached greater scholarly audience
  3. Louis XVI
    • Who: King of France and Navarre
    • When: 1700s
    • What: King of French; only French King to be executed (executed by guillotine)
    • Historical Significance:
    • was beloved at first
    • indecisiveness and conservatism eventually led French ppl as perceived tyranny of the Ancien Regime
    • had no children (sexually incapable?)
    • Louis le dernier (Louis the Last): Last King Louis
    • ruled during time of French Revolution: had royal familly removed once by angry mob of revolutionaries
    • attempted to flee the country- was stopped & seen as traitors
    • used as a scapegoat for revolutionaries
    • failed to have children
    • inherited throne at a difficult time: largely in debt; French people resented despotic monarchy
  4. Saint Ignatius
    • Who: Spanish knight, hermit, priest and theologian
    • When: 1491-1556
    • What: founded the Society of Jesus
    • Historical Significance:
    • founded Society of Jesus (first Superior General)
    • underwent spiritual conversion after serious injury during battle
    • wrote Spiritual Exercises (approved by Pope Paul III): Rules for Thinking with the Church (Rule #13)
    • stressed discipline to Pope and elders

  5. Hobbes
    • Who: Thomas Hobbes
    • When: 1588-1679
    • What: English philosopher
    • Historical Significance:
    • remembered for political philosophy
    • wrote a book- Leviathan: established foundation for most Western political philosophy from perspective of social contract
    • social contract: people give up sovereignty to government in order to receive social order by rule of law
    • had ideas: right of an individual; equality of all men; artificial character of political order; all political power must be "representative" & based on people; liberal interpretation of the law (leaves people to do what the law explicitly does not forbid
  6. Seven Years War
    • Who: major European powers
    • When: 1756-1763
    • What: fighting for status quo; global nature; resulted in major shifts in balances of power and territories of several participants
    • Historical Significance:
    • ended with the Treaty of Hubertusburg and Paris
    • Great Britain strengthened its regime
    • France lost much of its land in the Americas
  7. American Revolution
    • Who: 13 colonies in North America
    • When: last half of 18th century
    • What:political upheaval where North American colonies joined together to break free from British Empire- combined to create United States of America
    • Historical Significance:
    • rejected authority of Parliament of Great Britain to govern them from overseas without representation; expelled royal officials
    • colonies formed their own self governing states
    • colonies formed an alliance to fight off British forces- American Revolution
    • American Revolution initiated social, political and intellectual transformations in early American society
    • rejected oligarchies in Europe at the time- championed the development of Republicanism based on Enlightenment understanding of liberalism
  8. Cahiers de Doleances
    • Who: 3 Estates of France
    • When: 1789 (first year of French Revolution)
    • What:
    • lists of grievances drawn up by each of the 3 Estates in France
    • 1st Estate: Clergy
    • 2nd Estate: Nobility
    • 3rd Estate: bourgeoisie; urban workers; peasants
    • Historical Significance:
    • ordered by King Louis XVI
    • chance for Estates to express their hopes and grievances directly to the king
    • discussed in a special meeting- Estates General
    • writing forced people in France to think about the problems of France and how they want it fixed
    • added greatly to the revolutionary air of expectation of the Estates General
  9. Leibniz
    • Who: Gottfried Willhelm Leibniz
    • When:1646-1716
    • What: German mathematician and philosopher
    • Historical Significance:
    • wrote primarily in French and Latin
    • MATH: invented infinitesimal calculus (separate from Newton); binary system
    • PHILOSOPHY: optimism
    • 17th century rationalist
    • work has modern logic and analyst but philosophy looks back to scholastic tradition
  10. Military Science
    • Who: English?- Military people
    • When: War
    • What: process of translating national defense policy to produce military capability by employing military scientists
    • Historical Significance:
    • creation of theories, concepts, methods etc. applicable to functions and activities of armed forces
    • term has been used during the time of Industrial Revolution to refer to all matters of military theory and technology disciple- single academic subject
  11. Mazarin
    • Who: Jules Mazarin
    • When: 1600s
    • What: Italian Cardinal, diplomat and politician
    • Historical Significance:
    • served as chief minister of France from 1642 until his death
    • noted collector of art and jewels (esp. diamonds)
    • served under Cardinal Richelieu (Louis XIII's chief minister)
    • succeeded Richelieu's position after Richelieu's death
    • functioned as co-ruler of France along with Queen after Louis XIII's death
  12. William and Mary
    • Who: William III & II and Mary II
    • When: 1689- 1702
    • What: co regency over kingdoms England, Scotland and Ireland of King William III & II and Queen Mary II
    • Historical Significance:
    • called to throne by Parliament after death of James II and VII
    • ended Glorious Revolution by signing English Bill of Rights
    • began new cooperation between monarchs and Parliament
    • end the idea that England be restored to Roman Catholicism
  13. Cromwell
    • Who: Thomas Cromwell
    • When: 1485-1540
    • What: English statesman; King Henry VII's chief minister
    • Historical Significance:
    • attempted to modernize government at the expense of privileges of nobility and church
    • one of the strongest advocates of English Reformation & English church's break from papacy in Rome
    • supervised the church from unique posts of vicegerent for spirituals and vicar generals after King's supremacy over Church of England
  14. scientific revolution
    • Who: Europe
    • When: 1543-late 17th century
    • What: period of new idea in physics, astronomy, biology, human anatomy, chemistry and other sciences led to rejections to long held doctrines
    • Historical Significance:
    • significant establishing base for modern science
    • period saw fundamental transformations in scientific areas (ie. physics, astronomy etc.)
    • let scholars look at the world in a different light
    • religion, superstition and fear were replaced by reason and knowledge
  15. Galileo
    • Who: Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, and flautist
    • When: 1564- 1642
    • What:
    • played a major role in the Scientific Revolution
    • called "father of modern observational astronomy"; "father of modern physics"; "father of science"; "father of modern science"
    • Historical Significance:
    • improvements on the telescope- consequential astronomical observations
    • supported Copernicus' theories
    • discovery of heliocentric ism was not good as philosophers and religious leaders of his time supported geocentric view (Earth was center of universe)
    • publicly supported heliocentric view
    • spent rest of life under house arrest after many warnings to not support heliocentric view
  16. Rousseau
    • Who: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    • When: 1712-1778
    • What: Genevois philosopher and writer who's works influenced the French revolution & development modern political, sociological, and educational thought
    • Historical Significance:
    • came up with the social contract theory
    • social contract theory: people give up sovereignty to a gov/ authority in order to receive/ maintain a social order through the rule of law
    • his work focuses on subjectivity and introspection which characterizes modern age
    • advocated liberal republicanism

  17. Newton
    • Who: Sir Isaac Newton
    • When: 1643-1727
    • What: English physicist, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian
    • Historical Significance:
    • considered one of the most influential people in history
    • describes universal gravitation and 3 laws of motion
    • very religion
    • part of Englightenment and Scientific revolution
  18. Turgot
    • Who: French economist and statesman
    • When: 1727-1781
    • What: early advocate for economic liberalism
    • Historical Significance:
    • minister of France- attempted to get France out of financial crisis during Louis XVI's time
    • enforce rigid economy in all departments (each department has to get approval to spend money)
    • tried to establish free grain trade
    • fell because of strong opposition to edict
    • was a physiocrat
  19. Bastille
    • Who: French
    • When: 1789
    • What: fortress prison in Paris ;Storming of the Bastille
    • Historical Significance:
    • built during the Hundred Years War
    • Storming of the Bastille on July 14 1789 & Tennis Court Oath began French revolution
    • the crowd demanded acess into the Bastille
    • crowd negotiated with guard- crowd ended up killing everyone inside the Bastille
    • wanted access to Bastille for gun powder and similar weapons
  20. Henry IV
    • Who: King of France
    • When: 1553-1610
    • What:
    • first monarch of the Bourbon branch
    • was a Huguenot
    • involved in the Wars of Religion
    • Historical Significance:
    • before coronation as King of France he changed faiths from Calvinism to Catholicism
    • enacted Edict of Nantes- guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants: ended civil war
    • one of more popular French kings
    • showed great care of welfare to his subjects
    • unusual religious tolerance for his time
    • did not want war
    • pleased his subjects
  21. physiocrats
    • Who: French
    • When: 1700s
    • What:
    • group that supported Physiocracy
    • group of economists that believed that wealth of nations were derived solely from the value of land agriculture or land development
    • Historical Significance:
    • movement was dominated by Turgot
    • emphasis on productive work as the source of national wealth
    • opposite of mercantilism (focuses on ruler's wealth; accumulation of gold; balance of trade)
    • only considers agricultural labor to be valuable
  22. social contract
    • What:a broad class of theories that try to explain the ways in which people form states to maintain social order
    • Historical Significance:
    • implies that the people give up sovereignty to a government or other authority in order to receive social order through law
    • central pillar in the notion that legitimate state authority must be derived from the consent of the governed
    • starting point is examination of the human condition absent from any structured social order
    • an individual’s actions are bound only by his or her personal power; constrained by conscience
  23. Candide
    • Who: Voltaire
    • When: 1759
    • What:
    • French satire
    • talks about a man Candide who is indoctrinated with optimism by his mentor Pangloss
    • he slowly experiences the hardships of life and loses optimism
    • Historical Significance:
    • after publication, book was widely banned because of religious blasphemy
    • talks about the many evils in the world
  24. Optimism
    • Who: Leibniz
    • When: late 1600s-1700s
    • What: justifies apparent imperfections of the world by claiming that it is optimal among all worlds
    • Historical Significance:
    • must be the best possible and most balanced world, because it was created by an all powerful and all knowing God, who would not choose to create an imperfect world if a better world could be known to him or possible to exist
    • apparent flaws that can be identified in this world must exist in every possible world, because otherwise God would have chosen to create the world that excluded those flaws
    • part of the Enlightenment thinking
  25. Louis XV
    • Who: King of France
    • When: 1700s (died 1754)
    • What: became king at age of 5 and was beloved at the beginning of his reign
    • Historical Significance:
    • became king at age 5- was governed by Regent Phillip (duc d'Orleans)- Louis' great uncle
    • had a favorable reputation at beginning of reign
    • however, by end of Seven Years War, he became one of the most unpopular kings
    • had ill advised financial policies: eventually led to French Revolution (15 years after death)
    • succeeded by grandson Louis XVI
  26. Kant
    • Who: Immanuel Kant
    • When: 1724-1804
    • What: 18th century philosopher from Prussia
    • Historical Significance:
    • influential thinker during the Enlightenment
    • created new perspective on philosophy
    • created a compromise between an empiricist and rationalist
    • empiricist: knowledge is acquired through experience alone
    • rationalist: reason alone provides us with knowledge
  27. Kepler
    • Who: Johannes Kepler
    • When: Scientific Revolution
    • What: German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer
    • Historical Significance:
    • key figure in scientific revolution
    • best known for his laws on planetary motion
    • provided foundation for Isaac Newton's theory on planetary motion
    • incorporated religious arguments and reasoning into his work, motivated by the religious conviction that God had created the world according to an intelligible plan that is accessible through the natural light of reason
  28. parlement
    • Who: French/ Conseil du roi
    • What: political institutions
    • Historical Significance:
    • part of the ancient regime
    • participation in legislation process- brought them into many conflicts evolving monarch absolutism
    • began with only the Parlement de Paris
    • until French Revolution, there were many provinces with Parlements
  29. Estates General
    • Who: French
    • When: Ancient Regime
    • What: legislative assembly of different estates of French subjects
    • Historical Significance:
    • had separate assembly for each of the estates which were called and dismissed by the king
    • had no true right
    • unequal representation of the estates (the 3rd estate had many more people than the other 2, however, they have equal representation)
    • estate meeting before French revolution: 3rd estate finally gained double representation
    • SIGNIFICANT: Estate General Meeting of 1789
  30. National Assembly
    • Who: 3rd Estate General
    • When: 1789
    • What: the 3rd Estates- General declared itself the National Assembly
    • Historical Significance:
    • was declared after the Estates General Meeting of 1789
    • feel like the represent the real people of France
    • poor clergy and nobles joined
    • their numbers exceed any of the other estates combined- dominated others
    • refused to separate until they had constitution of France
    • began the movement against the monarch- beginning of French Revolution?
  31. tabula rasa
    • What: means "blank state" in Latin
    • Historical Significance:
    • traces of ideas come from Aristotle
    • from John Locke's theories
    • individuals are born without built-in mental content and that their knowledge comes from experience and perception
  32. Richelieu
    • Who: Cardinal Richelieu
    • When: 1600s (early)
    • What: King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624
    • Historical Significance:
    • sought to consolidate royal power & crush domestic factions
    • retain power of nobility- France became strong centralized state
    • sought to get rid of the Austro-Spanish Habsburg dynasty
    • helped get transportation of goods through France by using valleys
  33. Parlement de Paris
    • Who: Paris
    • When: Ancient Regime
    • What: political institution (see parlement)
    • Historical Significance:
    • jurisdiction covered the entire kingdom
    • after turmoil of the Hundred Years War, king granted 1 other province a parlement
    • eventually many provinces had a parlement
  34. Copernicus
    • Who: Renaissance astronomer
    • When: Renaissance (1473-1543)
    • What: first to formulate comprehensive heliocentric cosmology; displaced Earth from center of universe
    • Historical Significance:
    • showed that Earth was not the center of universe
    • threw away years of belief (religious etc.)
    • made people question everything around them
    • started the Enlightenment (period of thinking)
  35. Locke
    • Who: English philosopher and physician
    • When: 1632-1704
    • What: notable philosopher who influenced many other influential writers such as Voltaire & Rousseau
    • Historical Significance:
    • has major contribution to classic republicanism and liberal theory
    • first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness
    • came up with the theory "tabula rasa"- government with consent of the governed
  36. Tycho Brahe
    • Who: Danish nobleman
    • When: 1546-1601
    • What: known as astronomer and alchemist
    • Historical Significance:
    • combine geometrical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical benefits of the Ptolemaic system into the Tychonic system
    • calculations allowed his assistant, Kepler, to derive laws of planetary motion
  37. Marquis de Sade
    • Who: French aristocrat
    • When: 1740-1814
    • What: best known for erotic novels that combined philosophical discourse with pornography
    • Historical Significance:
    • proponent of extreme freedom; unrestrained by morality, religion or law
    • he wrote of bizarre sexual fantasies with an emphasis on violence, criminality, and blasphemy against the Catholic Church
    • elected delegate to National Convention during French Revolution
  38. Louis XIV
    • Who: king of France (known as Sun King)
    • When: 1643-1715
    • What: began personally governing France at the death of his Prime Minister Cardinal Marazin
    • Historical Significance:
    • continued creating a centralized state governed from capital
    • sought to eliminate all feudalism
    • during his reign France stood as the leading European power
    • participated in 3 major wars
  39. Glorious Revolution
    • Who: King James II of England
    • When: 1688 (Revolution of 1688)
    • What: was the overthrow of King James II of England
    • Historical Significance:
    • overthrew by a union of Parliamentarians with an invading army led by the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau
    • William III is then to become king of England
    • ended any chance of Catholicism to be restored in England; limited toleration for non-conformist Protestants
    • invasion ended all attempts of England in the anglo-dutch wars of the 17th century
  40. Puritan
    • Who: Protestants
    • When: 16th & 17th centuries
    • What: significant group of English speaking Protestants
    • Historical Significance:
    • felt that English Reformation had not gone far enough
    • advocate greater "purity" of worship
    • thought Church of England was too tolerant with Catholic like church traditions
Card Set
History I
History I (Final Exam)