SOC chapter 2

  1. translates the social world into numbers that can be studied mathematically, can be measured
    quantitative research
  2. uses nonnumercial data like texts, interviews, photos and recordings to help understand social life
    qualitative research
  3. ex of qualitative research
    • IQ (intelligence)
    • depression
    • self esteem
  4. a procedure for acquiring knowledge that emphasizes collecting data through observation and experiment
    scientific method
  5. operational definitions?
    • variables
    • ex, with dress in class
  6. a relationship between two variables
  7. a relationship where one variable causes another variable to change
  8. a relationship that seems to appear between two variables, but is actually caused by some external or intervening variable
    spurious correlation
  9. a change in the way we think about some aspect of life
    paradigm shift
  10. Thomas Kuhn?
    said research can lead to a paradigm shift
  11. ex of paradigm shift
    view on marriage equality
  12. triangulation?
    uses 3 points to validate the variable
  13. studying people in their own environments in order to understand the meanings they give to their activities
  14. 2 steps of ethnography?
    • the researcher participates in and observes a setting
    • then the researcher makes a written account(field notes) of what goes on there
  15. the researcher both observes and becomes a member in a social setting
    participant observation
  16. involve direct face to face contact with respondents
  17. what can interviews generate?
    large amounts of qualitative data
  18. interview:: research indentfies the _____ _____ of interest, then selects a _____ of people to be interviewed from that population
    • target population
    • sample
  19. what kind of questions can interviews use?
    • open ended
    • close ended
  20. let respondents talk as much as theyd like about the question you asked
    open ended
  21. give respondents a choice of answers
    close ended
  22. questionnaires that are administered to a sample of respondents selected from a target population
  23. survey research tends to look at ?
    large scale social patterns and employs statistics and other mathematical means of analysis
  24. refer to any data that has already been collected by earlier researchers and is available for future research
    existing sources
  25. formal tests of specific variables and effects that are performed in a setting where all aspects of the situation can be controlled
  26. many experiments involve 2 groups?
    • experimental
    • control
  27. participants that receive the experimental treatment
    experimental group
  28. participants that continue without intervention so they can be compared with the experimental group
    control group
  29. Max weber coined the phrase?
    value-free sociology
  30. states that researchers should identify facts without allowing their own personal beliefs or biases to interfere
    value free sociology
  31. help researches avoid bias and adhere to professional standards and to protect respondents from harm
    code of ethics
  32. the American Sociological Association has developed its own?
    code of ethics
  33. a group of scholars within a university who meet regularly to review and approve the research proposals of their colleagues and make recommendations for how to protect human subjects
    institutional review board
Card Set
SOC chapter 2
powerpoint notes