US History II

  1. The _______ Act of 1862 gave _____ acres of free land to settlers who would live on the land for ___ years and improve it.
    • Homestead
    • 160
    • 5
  2. How many acres did the US govt give away under the Homestead Act?
    48 million
  3. What was the purpose of the Homestead Act?
    • To get people to settle in the West;
    • It helped stimulate the Westward land rush
  4. How much did it cost to build a sod house in 1860s?
  5. A mounted Plains warrior could ride _____ yards and shoot ___ arrows in the time it took a soldier to _______.
    300; 20; load his gun
  6. What killed most of the Indians?
  7. What would drop from the dirt roof of sod houses?
  8. What happened after gold was discovered in the Blackhills of the Dakotas?
    miners rushed in even though the Sioux legally held the land and considered it sacred
  9. What did Custer do?
    Led 265 men into the largest Indian camp ever assembled on the Great Plains near Little Bighorn River in Montana & was wiped out.
  10. Who led the Sioux against the US Cavalry in 1872?
    Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull
  11. How much federal land grant did the govt give to the RR?
    180 million acres (1/10 size of US)
  12. How were the RR financed?
    State, federal, and international loans & private investors & subsidies
  13. Who mostly built the RR?
    CHINESE mostly. Also Irish and Mexican immigrants
  14. How many buffalo were slaughtered in 30 years? How many between 1872-1874? Why?
    • 30 million; 3 million;
    • To get rid of Indians
  15. How many buffalo were left at the end of the slaughter?
    1,000 & were saved by being domesticated
  16. The US govt took _____ acres of ______ territory and opened it for settlement which was the last free land given away by US
    2 million; Indian
  17. People lined up on the ____ border before the Indian territory in ___ was given away, hence the name ______.
    Arkansas, OK, Sooners
  18. How many settlers (in one day) took over the OK Indian territory that the govt gave away?
  19. What did the Dawes Act do?
    • Reduced Indian land from 138 million acres to 48 million;
    • Broke up land into reservations with individual allotments of land
  20. Why did the Dawes Act break up Indian reservations?
    to prevent Indians from being unified in a tribe
  21. When did the Dawes Act take place?
  22. By 1890, how much land did Euro Americans control that was formerly occupied by Indians?
  23. What did the US govt do to the Indian children?
    • Took them away from their parents
    • sent to boarding schools
    • stripped them of clothing
    • confiscated possessions 
    • cut their hair
    • doused with kerosene
    • given new names & clothes
  24. The _______ was badly managed and corrupt and the Indians located on the reservations suffered poverty and starvation. $$ was not being used to help Native Americans.
    Bureau of Indian Affairs
  25. What was the Plains Indians Ghost Dance supposed to do?
    • Resurrect warriors, 
    • get rid of white people from the Plains
    • & bring the Buffalo back
  26. The _______ was a religion of despair.
    Plains Indians Ghost Dance
  27. What led to the last armed confrontation during the Plains Indians Wars?
    The Ghost Dance. The govt felt threatened by it
  28. What was the last armed confrontation during the Plains Indians Wars?
    The Massacre at Wounded Knee
  29. Who was killed in 1890 by Indian police?
    Sitting Bull
  30. What did the Supreme Ct grant to the Sioux in 1980?
    $122.5 million settlement which they did NOT accept. They wanted land returned.
  31. ______ towns like Virginia City, NV exploded into urban industrial centers every bit as ____ as their eastern counterparts.
    Mining; corrupt
  32. _____ and _____ women have the largest group of women at the legendary Comstock Lode.
    Irish & Irish American
  33. A lot of _____ worked in the mining camps and suffered brutal treatment.
  34. By 1870, over ________ Chinese immigrants lived in the US but were denied _______.
    63,000; citizenship
  35. What did the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 do?
    Barred further Chinese immigration
  36. Who invented gunpowder?
  37. Between 1873 and 1882, what produced over $100 million?
    The Big Bonanza
  38. During the Big Bonanza, how far down did miners work and at what temp?
    • 1500-3000 feet;
    • 120 degrees F
  39. In the hard-rock mines of the West, accidennts in the 1870's disabled ___ out of every ___ miners and killed ___ in ___.
    • 1, 30
    • 1, 80
  40. What happened to the miners that avoided accidents to disable them?
    They still breathed dangerous air and eventually contracted respiratory diseases
  41. How many head of cattle at a time were herded on trails between 1865 and 1885?
  42. What revolutionized the cattle business?
    Barbed wire
  43. How many TX Longhorns went to market before the open range began to close in the 1880s?
    1.5 million
  44. What caused some of the bloodiest wars in US history?
    When the Cowboys cut the barbed wire and fought with the ranchers
  45. He grew up working with fiberglass and constructed the "Vaquero" statue.
    Luis Jimenez
  46. What happened to the cowboys after the trail rides?
    They became seasonal laborers
  47. He had a "frontier thesis" and speculated that American History is best explained by the frontier which shaped the character & characteristics of Americans.
    Frederick Jackson Turner
  48. A form of political corruption; the unscrupulous use of a politician's authority for personal gain
  49. Who coined the term "Gilded Age"?
    Mark Twain, real name Samuel Langhorne Clemens
  50. Who was the first business leader?
    Jay Gould
  51. What did Jay Gould do?
    He bought stock in RR at cheap prices and sold them for huge profits
  52. Who became the most hated man in America and is related to the "mightiest disaster"?
    Jay Gould
  53. What other industries grew with the RRs?
    Steel, timber, coal, telegraph lines
  54. By 1900 we had how many miles of RR track?
  55. Speculation was the game and wealth was the goal for this person.
    Jay Gould
  56. Who build the biggest steel business in the world in the Gilded Age?
    Andrew Carnegie
  57. Carnegie built the most up-to-date _______  in the world
    Bessemer steel plant
  58. ______ process had iron and alloy mixed together.
  59. How much did Carnegie make per year by 1900?
    $40 million
  60. Carnegie pioneered a system of business organization called _______.
    Vertical Integration
  61. Carnegie applied the lessons of _____ and ______ and turned ____ into the nation's first big business.
    cost accounting; efficiency; steel
  62. Carnegie increased output from ___ tons a week to _____ tons a week.
    70; 10,000
  63. Carnegie cut the cost of steel from ____ to ____ a ton.
    $58; $25
  64. What is vertical integration?
    All aspects of a business are under the same control. No profit paid to anyone else.
  65. By 1900, Carnegie's mills produced more steel than all of _____.
    Great Britain
  66. What did Carnegie do in 1901?
    Sold the steel company to J.P. Morgan for $480 million
  67. Carnegie believed the wealthy should be what?
  68. How many libraries did Carnegie open in the US?
  69. Who controlled 9/10 of the oil-refining business in 1860s and 1870s?
    John D. Rockefeller and his Standard Oil Company
  70. Who's father peddled quack cures for cancer?
  71. At age 25, he controlled the largest oil refinery in Cleveland.
  72. What did Rockefeller demand from the railroads?
    Secret rebates in exchange for his steady business. He would pay the RR to ship his oil and they would give him $$ back.
  73. Who discovered oil?
    Edwin Drake
  74. What did Rockefeller add to control the refining process?
    Horizontal Integration. He bought up all the oil refineries which gave him exclusive control over one industry.
  75. What did Rockefeller form from his monopoly?
    A trust
  76. What is a trust?
    A union of stockholders and holding companies under one central administration
  77. Who are the three muckrakers?
    • Ida Tarbell - corruption in Standard Oil Company
    • Ida B. Wells - lynching
    • Upton Sinclair - Meatpacking plants
  78. Who exposed Rockefeller's ruthless business practices?
    Ida Tarbell
  79. Who slept with a revolver under his pillow?
  80. What was JP Morgan's nickname?
    Jupiter, ruler of Roman gods
  81. He was a "finance capitalist"
    JP Morgan
  82. He controlled interlocking directorates (like an umbrella with different businesses under it)
    JP Morgan
  83. How did JP Morgan integrate?
  84. What did JP Morgan do to the stock?
    Watered it. Sold more shares than the company was worth
  85. What did JP Morgan do when he bought Carnegie Steel?
    He bought another steel company and consolidated them into US Steel
  86. Who created GE?
    JP Morgan
  87. Who created GE?
    JP  Morgan
  88. Who assassinated Garfield?
    Charles Guiteau
  89. What happened on July 2, 1881?
    Charles Gouteau shot Garfield in the back at a train station in Wash DC (less than 4 mos after Garfield took office)
  90. Why was Garfield assassinated?
    Guiteau thought he should have gotten a position under the SPOILS system
  91. Who took office after Garfield was shot?
    Chester Arthur
  92. What actually caused Garfield's death?
    Infection from the Dr sticking his dirty hands in the wound
  93. How many civil service jobs did the Pendleton Civil Service Act create?
  94. How did people show they were qualified for a civil service job?
    They took an exam
  95. What was the nation's first federal regulatory agency?
    Interstate Commerce Commission in 1887
  96. At the time, the Interstate Commerce Act was more of what?
    a precedent than a watchdog; there was not much regulation
  97. Presidents used to force govt employees to contribute to their campaigns. What outlawed that?
    The Pendleton Act
  98. Farmers in midwest were angry because they felt they were suffering from unfair shipping practices that RR were using. What was established to regulate the RR and other transportation services?
    Interstate Commerce Commission
  99. What Act was passed in 1890 under the influence of Roosevelt?
    Sherman Anti-trust Act
  100. When and by whom was the telephone invented?
    1876, Alexander Graham Bell
  101. By 1895, how many telephones were in the US? How many by 1900?
    • 310,000
    • 1.5 million
  102. When was trust actually "busted"?
    During Jimmy Carter's presidency
  103. Thomas Edison promised a new minor invention every _______ and a big thing every _______.
    • 10 days
    • 6 months
  104. Name a few things invented by Thomas Edison.
    • Light bulb (tungston filament)
    • Cylinder phonograph
    • Motion Picture Projector
    • Incandescent Light Bulb
  105. Edison averaged a patent every ____ days and obtained _____ patents - more than any other person in history.
    11; 1093
  106. What did JP Morgan do in 1892?
    He consolidated Edison General Electric and dropped Edison from the name
  107. What Carnegie did for steel, ______ did for meat packing.
    Gustavis Swift
  108. Swift _______ integrated the meat packing business.
  109. What type of production and distribution did Swift use?
    mass production; refrigerated RR cars
  110. Who was CJ Walker?
    A female entrepreneur who invented black hair care and beauty products
  111. How much is the black beauty business valued at today?
    over $4 billion
  112. What opened to door to the mail order catalog business?
    RFD = Rural Free Delivery
  113. What prompted the departure of more than a million Jews in two decades?
    A wave of violent pogroms (persecutions). Citizens, police or armies would go into Jewish neighborhoods and harass and terrorize them.
  114. Up until 1890, where did most immigrate from?
    N & W Europe
  115. What are the four conditions that contributed to a new wave of immigration?
    • 1. Economic depression - no jobs
    • 2. Persecution of Jews in Eastern Europe (pogroms)
    • 3. Avoid draft into Russian Army
    • 4. Cheap labor needed by Americans (RR expansion)
  116. What was an immigrant like?
    Rural peasants, farmers; lived in shacks or sm houses; mostly unskilled single men who were willing to work the worst jobs for the lowest pay. Usually did not join labor unions and some did not stay (birds of passage)
  117. How many were usually processed per day at Ellis Island?
  118. What was the record of immigrants processed in one day at Ellis Island?
  119. What is NATIVISM?
    Biased or prejudice against immigrants in favor of native WASPs (White Anglo Saxon Protestants)
  120. What is Xenophobia?
    Fear of foreigners
  121. What happened on the west coast in 1882?
    Chinese Exclusion Act
  122. Who invented the traffic light?
    Eric Morgan (black American) in 1923
  123. What did Eric Morgan do after his invention of the traffic light?
    He sold the rights to GE for $40,000
  124. What did Eric Morgan invent?
    The traffic light (1923) and the gas mask (1912)
  125. What was one big invention that changed the make up of the city?
    Electric Trolleys
  126. Who was one of the first photographers to use magnesium flash?
    Jacob Riis
  127. What was the Magic Lantern?
    It showed/projected slides (Jacob Riis)
  128. Why did Jacob Riis take photographs?
    He wanted to expose the terrible conditions of the inner city slums
  129. How did Jacob Riis expose the slums?
    With photographs and a publication of "How the Other Half Lives" in 1890
  130. By 1900, what percent of NYC was immigrant?
  131. In 1900 there were how many horses which produced how much manure?
    200,000; 24 lbs a day each; over 5 million lbs a day!
  132. What were the four things cities needed?
    • Transportation & routes
    • Public Facilities (schools, hosp, libraries)
    • Sanitation(running water, street, garbage)
    • Water & energy systems
  133. What percent of cities were run by big bosses by the turn of the 20th century?
  134. How much did the $250,000 courthouse end up costing taxpayers?
    $14 million with bribes and kickbacks (grafts)
  135. What did the Progressives want to END?
    Child labor
  136. Where did a lot of children work (and still do today in East Asia)?
    Textile mills
  137. By 1910, how many kids under 15 yoa worked in industrial jobs?
    2 million
  138. What was the problem with kids working in the coal mines?
    Many accidents and many died from brown lung
  139. What was the first national strike in US History?
    The Great RR Strike of 1877
  140. What caused the Great RR Strike?
    Repeated pay cuts. Workers' wages were cut 10% and stockholders' profits rose 10%
  141. What was the Great RR Strike called?
    "The Great Uprising"
  142. How many people were shot and killed during the Great Uprising in 1877?
    40 people (in Pittsburgh)
  143. What resulted from the Great RR Strike?
    • The violence frightened authorities and upper classes turned against the strikers.
    • *Workers realized they had little power as individuals and joined unions
  144. What was the Knights of Labor?
    A union which welcomed everyone, including women and blacks
  145. Which union only allowed SKILLED workers?
    AFL (American Federation of Labor)
  146. What happened on May 1, 1886?
    • The Haymarket Affair. A Nationwide general strike in support of the 8 hr workday. 
    • 45,000 people paraded peacefully down Mich Ave.
    • SCABS were used to replace the workers
  147. What happened on May 3, 1886, 2 days after the Nationwide general strike for 8 hr workdays?
    The workers attacked the scabs outside the McCormick works and police opened fire, killing 4 and wounding 2 men
  148. Who led the radicals in the Haymarket Affair?
    August Spies
  149. What happened on May 4, 1886?
    • August Spies led the radicals to organize a rally in protest against police action (Haymkt Affair)
    • 3,000 ppl went down to Haymkt Sq - most went home except for 300. Someone threw a bomb into the crowd & killed 7 ofcrs and injured others. 
    • First time a bomb was used in domestic terrorism
    • 8 men were tried and found guilty
  150. What was the effect of the Haymarket Affair?
    • People turned away from the Knights of Labor & Radicals
    • Many skilled laborers joined AFL
  151. How long did UNskilled laborers have to wait for improvement in working conditions?
    20 yrs
  152. Who was the father of the parks?
    Frederick Law Olmsted
  153. Who designed Central Park in NYC?
    Frederick Law Olmstead
  154. What was the result of the fire in Chicago on Oct 8, 1871?
    • 300 residents were dead; 90,000 homeless and 17,450 buildings were destroyed. Damages $200 million
    • Chicago was rebuilt with modern architecture by the CHICAGO SCHOOL
  155. Architect who said, "Form follows function"
    Louis Sullivan
  156. Architect who created the open concept in houses.
    Frank Lloyd Wright
  157. Who invented elevators?
    Elisha Otis
  158. What were the 4 main challenges for farmers?
    • 1. drought
    • 2. RR shipping rates increased
    • 3. Rising crop prices
    • 4. Wanted a silver standard
  159. What was the Populist Movement or Peoples Party?
    Alliance of farmers, laborers & reformers that came together to try to make changes
  160. How were the strikes ended?
    • 1. Armed police, det, and troops
    • 2. Injunctions
    • 3. Blacklisted leaders and strikers
    • 4. Arbitration
  161. What happened with the Homestead Steel Mill Strike in 1892?
    Carnegie's workers threatened strike. He left Henry Clay Frick in charge who put put barbed wire fence to keep the workers out, and hired mercenaries at twice the pay the workers were getting. Fights broke out, Pinks lost.
  162. What happened to Henry Clay Frick?
    He was working at his desk and was shot twice in the neck by a Russian immigrant anarchist. He kept working while Drs removed the bullet. This turned public opinion against strikers & associated labor with anarchists.
  163. What was launched in 1869 and by whom?
    The National Women's Suffrage Association by Elizabeth Stanton & Susan B. Anthony to demand the right to vote for women.
  164. What types of inventions opened up more jobs for women?
    Typewriter, cash register, adding machine
  165. Who was the first person with the idea that govt should create more jobs for people?
    Jacob Coxey
  166. What happened to Jacob Coxey when he made a speech?
    He was arrested for walking on the grass - put in jail and fined $5.
  167. What was the biggest issue in politics?
    Farmers wanted silver standard; bankers wanted gold.
  168. Who ran in the election of 1896?
    • William McKinley (gold standard)
    • William Jennings Bryan (silver standard)
  169. What was the election of 1896 also called?
    The Watershed Election
  170. Who said, "Do not crucify mankind on a cross of gold"?
    William Jennings Bryan
  171. Who was the 3rd Pres to be assassinated?
    WIlliam McKinley
  172. Who were the progressives?
    • People who wanted to use the govt to fix problems.
    • Concerned about industrialization
    • Optimistic about human nature
    • Believed that the ENVIRONMENT, not heredity alone determines behavior
  173. What did Jane Addams develop?
    The Hull House
  174. What happened in 1911?
    The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
  175. Who originated the term "birth control"?
    Margaret Sanger
  176. When did Ida B. Wells become a muckraker?
    After her black friend was murdered for having a successful grocery store
  177. What type of campaign did Ida B. Wells start?
  178. Difference b/w Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois?
    • Booker T = born a slave, emphasized education; thought blacks needed to earn equality
    • Dubois = 1st blk PhD from Harvard, equality should be immediate, helped start NAACP
  179. Who was the first big trust buster?
    Theodore Roosevelt
Card Set
US History II
Unit 1