Positioning upper limb review

  1. What position is the thumb in when hand is pronated?  (palm down)
  2. Position of the hand for the AP forearm
    supinated (palm up)
  3. Hand is pronated, fingers extended and separated, central ray is directly perpendicular to 3rd MCP_ what projection is this?
    PA hand
  4. PA wrist - are the fingers flexed or extended? Why?
    flexed, to bring the carpal bones closer to image receptor (IR)
  5. Lateral 4th finger - is the hand on the radial or ulnar surface?
    Ulnar surface
  6. What happens if hand is pronated for an AP forearm
    radius crosses over ulna
  7. what surface is the forearm on for lateral?
  8. Centering point of  finger
    proximal interphalangeal joint
  9. oblique thumb centering point
    1st metacarpophalangeal joint
  10. PA wrist centering point
    mid carpal area
  11. Lateral forearm centering point
    mid shaft
  12. PA hand centering point
    3rd metacarpophalangeal joint
  13. Recommended source-to-image-receptor-distance (SID) for extremity images
    48 inches
  14. Norgaard or ball catcher's projection is used to demonostrate
    rheumatoid arthritis
  15. Carpal bone best demonstrated on AP oblique projection of the wrist
  16. how is the central ray directed for the Gaynor Hart method/carpal tunnel?  Where does it enter?
    25-30 degrees to the long axis of the hand, entering 1 inch distal to base of 3rd metacarpal base
  17. Scaphoid is best demonstrated in which projection
    ulnar deviation/ Stetcher
  18. which lateral of the hand will demonstrate foreign bodies?
    lateral in extension
  19. what must be included on all hand radiographs?
    14 phalanges, 5 metacarpals, 8 carpal bones, distal end of radius and ulna
  20. PA oblique of the hand MCP joint form a __________ angle with the IR
    45 Degree angle
  21. what structures must be included on all of the wrist radiographs
    8 carpals, proximal ends/bases/ of metacarpals and distal end of the radius and ulna
  22. Wrist PA or IR, finger end of IR elevated 20 degrees, this describes which projection? What is demonstrated?
    Stecher/PA axial demonstrates navicular
  23. When performing a lateral forearm, what structures must all lie in the same plane
    shoulder, humerus, forearm, and hand
  24. what must be included on all finger radiographs
    proximal, middle, and distal phalanges and head of the metacarpal
  25. hand rests on which surface for a lateral 2nd digit
  26. What is the difference between AP and PA thumb when looking at the radiograph
    PA thumb is magnified
  27. Where does the central ray enter for lateral projections of the hand
    2nd metacapophalangeal joints
  28. where does the central ray enter for the PA projection of the wrist
    mid carpal area
  29. where does the central ray for a lateral projection of the forearm
    mid shaft/body
  30. what is the recommended kVp range for finger, hand, wrist, and forearm radiographs
    54-65 kVp
  31. an AP  projection of the thumb requires that the patient's  hand be rotated into extreme:
    internal rotation
  32. for a lateral projection of the wrist which surface of the wrist should be in contact with image receptor (IR)
  33. a lateral wrist should demonstrate superimposed what?
    metacarpals, carpals, and distal ends of the radius and ulna
  34. for the lateral projection of the forearm, how should the elbow be position
    flexed 90 degrees in the lateral position
  35. how is the hand placed for a lateral forearm projection
    lateral position resting on ulnar side
  36. what projections of the upper limb require the hand to be supinated
    AP forearm
  37. what projection requires the shoulder, forearm, wrist, and hand to be in the same plane
    AP forearm
  38. What view of the thumb is demonstrated with fingers completely flexed?
    lateral thumb
  39. what is referred to as a boxer's fracture
    fractures of the 4th and 5th metacarpals
  40. what bone is of primary interest when performing ulnar deviation
    scaphoid (navicular)
  41. If no angle sponge is used to support the cassette during the Stecher method, how is the central ray directed
    20 degrees toward the elbow
  42. when performing Gaynor Hart, how is the wrist position?
  43. How should the long axis of the hand be placed for carpal tunnel view
  44. how is the central ray directed for the carpal canal view
    25-30 degrees
  45. PA digits projection where do you center the (IR)
    (PIP) proximal inter phalangeal joint
  46. Second and fifth digits directly in contact with IR and 3rd and 4th placed parallel with IR
    Lateral fingers
  47. What is the 3rd metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint
    3rd knuckle
  48. how many bone are found in your hand
    27 bones
  49. the hand bones can be subdivided into 3 groups what are they?
    • 1) phalanges- bones of digits (finger and thumb)
    • 2) metacarpals- slightly concave anteriorly (form palm of hand) they are numbered from 1-5 beginning from lateral side of the hand (metacarpal heads are commonly called knuckles) 1st metacarpal (thumb) has 2 small sesamoids bones below neck (head- distally, base - proximal)
    • 3) carpals- bones of the wrist there are 8
    • they are in 2 horizontal rows (Short bones)
  50. carpal bone closest to 1st metacarpal at base of (thumb)
    trapezium  also known as (greater multangular)
  51. carpal bone directly beneath 2nd metacarpal
    trapezoid (lesser multangular)
  52. carpal bone beneath trapezoid and directly on head of radius
    scaphoid (navicular)
  53. carpal bone directly below 3rd and 4th metacarpal
    capitate (os magnum)
  54. carpal bone directly below 4th and 5th metacarpal
    hamate (unciform)
  55. carpal bone touching the hamate located below 5 digit
  56. directly below the pisiform
    triquetrum (cuneiform or triangular)
  57. located beneath capitate next to scaphoid
    lunate (semilunar)
  58. what two bones are in the forearm
    • 1) radius - located on lateral side of forearm(closest to the thumb)
    • 2) ulna- located on the medial side of forearm (closest to pinky)
  59. Body long and slender, tapers inferiorly upper portion is large contains has 2 processes:  proximal process is (olecranon)  forms proximal portion of trochlear notch, distal process (coronoid) triangular in shape  forms lower portion of trochlear notch, has a depression (radial notch) distal end contains round process on lateral side (head) and a conic projection called (ulnar styloid process)
  60. proximal end small  presents a flat disklike head above a constricted neck just inferiorly (below) neck on medial side of body roughened process called radial tuberosity, distal end is broad and flattened
Card Set
Positioning upper limb review
Fingers, hands, wrist, forearm