art and civilization

  1. Can you identify the visual elements of art?
  2. What are the key design principles of composition?
    strict profile so that the head, body, tail, and all four legs are clearly visible.
  3. What is the role of human and animal figures in Paleolithic art?
    Most of the animals painted on prehistoric cave walls do not stand on a common ground line, nor do they share a common orientation. Paleolithic paintings have no background and no indication of place
  4. What are the materials and techniques of Paleolithic art?
    To illuminate the surfaces while working, Paleolithic painters used stone lamps filled with marrow or fat, with a wick, perhaps of moss. For drawing,they used chunks of red and yellow ocher.For painting, they ground these same ochers into powders they mixed with water before applying. Analyses of the pigments used show that Paleolithic painters employed many different minerals, attesting to a technical sophistication surprising at so early a date. Large flat stones served as palettes.painters made brushes from reeds, bristles, or twigs and may have used a blowpipe of reeds or hollow bones to spray pigments on out-of-reach surfaces. Some caves have natural ledges on the rock walls upon which the painters could have stood in order to reach the upper surfaces of the naturally formed chamber sand corridors.
  5. How is the human figure presented differently in the Paleolithic to the Neolithic
    This Neolithic painter depicted human figures as a composite of frontal and profile views, the most descriptive picture of the shape of the human body. This format would become the rule for millennia.

    The Neolithic farmers of Jericho removed the skulls of their dead before burial, modeled them in plaster, and inlaid the eyes to create lifelike “portraits” of their ancestors, whom they may have worshiped.
  6. What were the architectural achievements of the Neolithic period?
    it was a period of the progress of the human technology. Pottery was  first introduced in this age, as well as the development of tools for hunting, building and cooking. The neolithic peoples in the Levant,  Anatolia, Syria, northern Mesopotamia and Central Asia were great  builders, utilizing mud-brick to construct houses and villages. Houses  were plastered and painted with elaborate scenes of humans and animals
  7. Where did civilization begin and what is meant by the term civilization?
    in  Mesopotamia it is known as the craddle of civilization. Sumer, where Sumerians lived is the earliest known civilization. a civilization is a complex society that has cities, governments, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system.
  8. What is a ziggurat?
    In ancient Mesopotamian architecture, a monumental platform for a temple.
  9. What is cuneiform?
    cuneiform marked the beginning of writing, as historians strictly define it. Latin  for  “wedgeshaped.”A system of writing used in ancient Mesopotamia, in which wedge-shaped characters were produced by pressing a stylus into a soft clay tablet, which was then baked or otherwise allowed to harden.
  10. Which works of art represent Akkadian and Babylonian concepts of leadership and how
    do they differ?
    Hammurabi: Hammurabi was the king of Babylon who reestablished a centralized government in southern Mesopotamia.

    Sargon His name means "true king". He introduced the concept of royal power based on unswerving loyalty to the king rather than to the city-state

    Name an artwork that illustrates it.Victory stele of Naram-Sin, from Susa, Iran, 2253-2218 BCE, Pink sandstone, 6'7" high. Louvre, Paris.


    • artworks
    • The head of the Akkadian ruler shown of Fig.

    and hammurabi's code
  11. What are they key characteristics of Assyrian art?
    The characteristic Assyrian art form was the polychrome carved stone relief that decorated imperial monuments
  12. What is the significance of the Palette of Narmer?
    The ancient Egyptians believed the unification of Egypt took place in a single great event
  13. What is a ka?
    ancient Egypt, the immortal human life force.
  14. What is a mastaba?
    Arabic, “bench.” An ancient Egyptian rectangular brick or stone structure with sloping sides erected over a subterranean tomb chamber connected with the outside by a shaft.
  15. What is a hypostyle hall?
    A hall with a roof supported by columns
  16. A tomb that resembles a truncated pyramid is called a?
  17. How do Egyptian funerary traditions influence the creation of art and architecture?
    Construction of the Great Pyramids at Gizeh
  18. What is the Egyptian canon for representing the human form in Old Kingdom art?
    • the human figure was usually represented with the head in profile, the eye and shoulders in front view, and the pelvis, legs, and feet in
    • profile
  19. Who is Hatshepsut and what is the significance of her mortuary temple?
    Hatshepsutisthe first great female monarch whose name has been recorded.

    Her immense funerary temple incorporated shrines to Amen, whom she claimed was her father, and to Hathor and Anubis.
  20. Who is Akhenaton? How and why does Egyptian art change during the Amarna period?
    Akhenaton , abandoned the worship of most of the Egyptian gods in favor of Aton, identified with the sun disk, whom the pharaoh declared to be the universal and only god. Akhenaton deleted the name of Amen from all inscriptions and even from his own name and that of his father,

    pharaonic portraits. But the effeminate body, with its curving contours, and the long face with full lips and heavy-lidded eyes are a far cry indeed from the heroically proportionedfigures ofthe pharaoh’s predecessors (compareFIG .3-12 ). Akhenaton’s body is curiously misshapen, with weak arms, a narrow waist, protruding belly, wide hips, and fatty thighs. Modern physician shave tried to explain his physique by attributing a variety of illnesses to the pharaoh. cannot agree on a diagnosis, and their premise—that the statue is an ac- curate depiction of a physical deformitys probably faulty. Some art historians think Akhenaton’s portrait is a deliberate artistic reaction against the established style, paralleling the suppression of traditional religion. Akhenaton’s artists tried to formulate a new androgynous image of the pharaoh as the manifestation of Aton, the sexless sun disk. But no consensus exists other than that the style was revolutionary and short-lived
  21. context
    the environment in which the work was made including time, place, and  culture
  22. form
    the art elements such as line, color, texture and the compositional devices  or design principles that organize the work such as balance.
  23. formal analysis
    refers to analyzing the forms of art; also called visual analysis
  24. iconography
    the study of content in art, the themes and symbols in works of art.
  25. medium- prehistoric gothic period
    the material the work is made of such as paint or marble
  26. subject matter
    what you see, not the same as the subject which is the theme, a subset of  meaning
  27. Composite view
    a convention of representation in which part of a figure is shown in profile and part is shown frontally
  28. Cromlech
    a circle of monoliths, also a henge
  29. Ground line
    in paintings and reliefs, a painted or carved baseline on which figures appear to stand.
  30. Incise
    to cut into a surface with a sharp instrument
  31. Landscape
    a picture showing natural scenery
  32. Lintel
    a beam used to span an opening
  33. Medium
    the material in which an artist works such as marble, paint, clay
  34. Monolith
    a single block of stone in megalithic structures
  35. Mural
    a wall painting
  36. Radiocarbon dating
    a method of measuring the decay rate of carbon isotopes in organic matter to provide dates for materials such as wood and fiber.
  37. Relief
    in sculpture figures protruding from the background, the degree to which the design emerges is high or low (bas relief)
  38. Apadana
    The great audience hall in ancient Persian palaces.
  39. cuneiform
    Latin for “wedgeshaped.” A system of writing used in ancient Mesopotamia, in which wedge-shaped characters were produced by pressing a stylus into a soft clay tablet, which was then baked or otherwise allowed to harden.
  40. cylinder seal
    A cylindrical piece of stone usually about an inch or so in height, decorated with an incised design, so that a raised pattern was left when the seal was rolled over soft clay.
  41. glaze
    A coating applied to pottery to seal and decorate the surface; it may be colored, transparent, or opaque, and glossy or matte.
  42. ground line
    In paintings and reliefs, a painted or carved baseline on which figures appear to stand.
  43. heraldic composition
    A symmetrical design on either side of a central figure.
  44. hierarchy of scale
    An artistic convention in which greater size indicates greater importance.
  45. lamassu
    Assyrian guardian in the form of a man-headed winged bull.
  46. pictograph
    A picture, usually stylized, that represents an idea; also, writing using such means; also painting on rock. See also hieroglyphic
  47. register
    One of a series of superimposed bands in a pictorial narrative, or the particular levels on which motifs are placed.
  48. stele
    A carved stone slab used to mark graves or to commemorate historical events.
  49. ziggurat
    In ancient Mesopotamian architecture, a monumental platform for a temple.
  50. adobe
    The clay used to make a kind of sun-dried mud brick of the same name; a building made of such brick.
  51. ashlar masonry
    Carefully cut and regularly shaped blocks of stone used in construction, fitted together without mortar.
  52. block statue
    In ancient Egyptian sculpture, a cubic stone image with simplified body parts.
  53. canopic jar
    In ancient Egypt, the container in which the organs of the deceased were placed for later burial with the mummy.
  54. capital
    The uppermost member of a column, serving as a transition from the shaft to the lintel. In classical architecture, the form of the capital varies with the order.
  55. clerestory
    the windows that form the uppermost level below the timber ceiling or the vaults.
  56. colonnade
    A series or row of columns, usually spanned by lintels.
  57. engaged column
    A half-round column attached to a wall. See also pilaster
  58. fresco
    Painting on lime plaster, either dry or wet. In the latter method, the pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster. Also, a painting executed in either method.
  59. hieroglyphic
    A system of writing using symbols or pictures.
  60. hypostyle hall
    A hall with a roof supported by columns
  61. ka
    ancient Egypt, the immortal human life force.
  62. mastaba
    Arabic, “bench.” An ancient Egyptian rectangular brick or stone structure with sloping sides erected over a subterranean tomb chamber connected with the outside by a shaft.
  63. mummification
    A technique used by ancient Egyptians to preserve human bodies so that they may serve as the eternal home of the immortal ka.
  64. nemes
    In ancient Egypt, the linen headdress worn by the pharaoh, with the uraeus cobra of kingship on the front.
  65. palette
    In ancient Egypt, a slate slab used for preparing makeup. A thin board with a thumb hole at one end on which an artist lays and mixes colors.
  66. papyrus
    A plant native to Egypt and adjacent lands used to make paperlike writing material; also, the material or any writing on it.
  67. pictograph
    A picture, usually stylized, that represents an idea; also, writing using such means; also painting on rock.
  68. pier
    A vertical, freestanding masonry support.
  69. pylon
    The simple and massive gateway, with sloping walls, of an Egyptian temple.
  70. sarcophagus (pl. sarcophagi)
    Latin for “consumer of flesh.” A coffin, usually of stone.
  71. sphinx
    A mythical Egyptian beast with the body of a lion and the head of a human
  72. Inanna :
    Sumerian goddess of love and war, later known as Ishtar. Inanna was the mostimportant female deity in all periods of Mesopotamian history. As early as thefourth millennium bce, the Sumerians constructed a sanctuary to Inanna at Uruk.Amid the ruins, excavators uncovered statues and reliefs connected with her worship
  73. Enlil was the lord of the winds and the earth. He eventuallyreplaced his father as king of the gods.
  74. Utu.
    sun god,later known asShamash.Utu was especially re- vered at Sippar. OnaBabylonian stele of ca. 1780 bce, King Hammurabi presents his lawsto Shamash,whomthe sculptor depicted as a bearded god wearing a
  75. Marduk
    was the chief god of the Bab- ylonians.
  76. Nabu was the god of writing and wisdom
    was the god of writing and wisdom
  77. Ashur.
    local deity of Assur, the city that took his name. Ashur became the king ofthe Assyrian gods. He sometimes is identified with Enlil.
  78. Adad was the Babylonian god of storms.
    was the Babylonian god of storms.
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art and civilization
art and civilization