Chapter 5 language disorders

  1. preevaluation process (environmental, linguistic and cultural variables)
    • prior to formal assessments
    • comprehensive teacher input on student's classroom performance and comparison to peers
    • interview teacher
    • teacher questionnaire
    • interview teacher with questionnaire 
    • conduct at least one classroom observation (preferably of core curriculum activity)
    • assess student's lang in l1 and l2
    • remember to consider subtractive bilingualism, time and quality of instruction in each lang and time second lang has been spoken
  2. assessments
    • standarized tests
    •    -most commonly used for articulation or lang disorders
    •    -allow comparison of individuals performance to the group, answering the question "how does this person compare to the average
    •    -indicates whether individual is at, above or below the average
    •    -may not always be used for CLD
    •    -distribution normally uses bell-shaped curve
    •    -mean determines the peak demonstrating average performance
    •    - mean also demonstrates the peak which is the middle of the distribution
    •    -mode which is the most frequently occurring score
    •    -current eligibility standard is 
    •       -standard deviation = 1.5 sd below the mean or 7th percentile
  3. assessments
    what are the terms for the bell-curve
    mean-the sum of list of numbers, divided by the total number
  4. assessments
    criterion referenced tests
    • used for neurogenic disorders, fluency disorders and voice disorders
    • comparison to an expected level of performmance
  5. assessments
    authentic assessment approach
    alternative assessment/nontraditional assessment
  6. assessments
    portfolio assessments
    • identifies what a person can and cannot do
    • most effective to observe in a real-life situations
  7. validity
    a test truly measures what it claims to measure (face validity)
  8. content validity
    completeness of the test-are items relevant to measuring what test says it measures and do the items measure the full range of skills
  9. construct validity
    degree to which the test is able to measure a predetermined behavior or attribute (theoretical construct). considered key to test development stanford-binet
  10. concurrent validity
    degree to which a new test correlates with an established test of known validity. EVT correalating to the PPVT
  11. predictive validity
    test's ability to possibly predict performance. GRE predicting future academic performance (some people may not do well on these types of tests)
  12. how can standardized tests be misused
    • (assessment needs to match the population you are testing)
    • used with the wrong population
    • age
    • ses
    • may not identify all areas of disability
    • may not fully describe the problem (may only touch the surface)
    • how many items on the test for each area (one question doesn't identify a disability)
    • outdated version
    • revised versions usually have different or expanded populations and norms
  13. what are some considerations for using standardized tests with cld:
    • does the child feel comfortable in the testing situation with the tester
    • will they guess if they don't know the answer
    • will they try to do their best
    • understand what they are being asked to do
    • standardized tests may ask children to do something that is contrary to their customs therefore them must match their normed group
  14. bias on tests
    • 4 types:
    • Cultrual linguistic 
    • value
    • format
    • examiner
  15. bias on tests
    cultural-linguistic bias
    • content bias
    • activities that don't match with the child's experimental base
  16. bias on tests
    value bias
    test items assume a value system different than the child's system
  17. bias on tests
    format bias
    • situational bias
    • use of testing procedures, materials or both that is less familiar to some children (not willing to talk to strangers)
  18. bias on tests
    examiner bias
    • how they administer or interpret tests
    • how to modify standardized tests
    • collecting lang smaples
    •    -take over several sessions in many settings 
    •    -have them talk to several people including family
    •    -take into consideration lang differences
    •    -analyze both form and content in both langs
    •    -use structured lang sample techniques to ensure they talk
  19. what are some alternatives to standardized assessment problems
    • look for assessment strategies that are not biased
    • extend time limits
    • reword instruction
    • provide practice of types of items
    • evaluate lang of test (ask for things not in the child's native lang)
    • use norm referenced tests that allow description of child's skills
    •    -CLD children do better on verbal tests so add to battery
  20. larry p 1986
    suit that claimed that iq test was biased against aa children so in state of ca aa children can not be tested on iq. invalid test.
  21. assessment alternatives
    • assessment of narrative skills to determine if student can retell story with details
    • sequence
    • organization of info
    • relevant/irrelevant comments
    • portfolio assessments
  22. use of interpreters
    • attempt to use those who are from same geographic area/speak the same dialect
    • train interpreter
    • demonstrate how to use test, how to document student responses
    •    -ensure they translate the info to discuss it with you when they have questions
    •    -watch them administer the test
    •    -take to them about their scoring
Card Set
Chapter 5 language disorders
454 language disorders