Nur 101 exam 5 set #1

  1. infection
    invasion and proliferation of an infectious agent within the body.
  2. What is the most common infection causing microorganism
  3. What do Viruses do?
    redesign the cellular nucleic acid to replicate itself
  4. Fungi
    • Yeast
    • molds
  5. Parasites
    organisms that live on other living organisms
  6. What are the types of asepsis?
    • Clean - absence of almost all microorganisms
    • Dirty - used previously
  7. What is medical asepsis?
    prevent infection and cross contamination
  8. Surgical Asepsis
    Sterile Technique, free from all organisms
  9. What are beneficial microorganisms?
    • Resident Flora
    • Enterobacteria (bacteriocins)
  10. Bacteremia
    When a person's blood reveals microorganisms
  11. Septicemia
    When bacteria results in systemic infection
  12. What is the chain of infection?
    • Infectious Agent
    • Reservoirs
    • Portal of Exit
    • Means of Transmission
    • Portal of Entry
    • Susceptible Host
  13. What are the bodies defenses against infection
    • Infectious Agent
    • Reservoirs
    • Portal of Exit
    • Means of Transmission
    • Portal of Entry
    • Susceptible Host
  14. What is the chain of infection?
    • Infectious Agent
    • Reservoirs
    • Portal of Exit
    • Means of Transmission
    • Portal of Entry
    • Susceptible Host
  15. What are the body's defenses against infection?
    • Skin -1st line is intact skin
    • Lungs- macrophages
    • Eyes- tears
    • Vagina- acidity
    • Mouth- mucosal epithelium membranes
    • GI- acidity, resident flora, peristalsis
    • Urinary Meatus- Urine acidity
  16. What are ways that you can break the chain of infection at the infectious Agent link?
    Reduce or eliminate microorganisms
  17. What can you do to break the chin of infection at the Reservoir Link?
    Hygiene measures reduce transient flora
  18. What are ways to break the chain of infection at the Method of Transmission?
    • Wash hands often between clients and after touching any body fluids, and after removing gloves.
    • Wash before and after everything
  19. What are ways to break the chain at Portal of Exit stage/link?
    • Avoid coughing, sneezing over sterile fields, turn away, do not cough into arm or had
    • teach clients to cover their mouths/ turn their heads away
  20. What are ways to break the chain of infection at the portal of entry?
    • use sterile technique
    • keep wounds covered
    • if client is susceptible have them wear a mask if in a place where they would be at risk
  21. what are the way to brake the chain for a susceptible host?
    Maintain integrity of clients skin and mucous membrane.
  22. What are the Specific Defenses?
    • directed against identifiable bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other disease
    • (specific defenses involve the immune system)
  23. What are Nonspecific Defenses?
    • Protect the person against all microorganisms, regardless of prior exposure
    • (anatomic barriers, physiological barriers and inflammatory response)
  24. What  are the factors that increase susceptibility to infection?
    • Sick, young, Older Adult
    • Dehydration
    • Lack of Sleep
    • Stress
    • Open Wounds
    • Some Medications
  25. Which lab values are expected to increase in the presence of infection?
    • WBC'c
    • White Blood Cells
  26. What actions do Nurses that to prevent the spread of infection?
    • Hand washing
    • Reduce Cross Contamination
    • Hygiene
    • Maintain Skin Integrity
    • Wear PPE
    • Encourage Sleep
    • Educate the Family
    • Use Sterile Technique
  27. Principles of Surgical Asepsis, Sterile object are considered contaminated when:
    • touched by unsterile objects
    • are out of sight
    • below waist or table
    • prolonged exposure to airborne microorgs
  28. What are qualities that are essential in maintaining asepsis?
    • Conscientiousness
    • alertness
    • honesty
  29. The edges of a sterile field are
    • Not Sterile
    • about an inch all the way around
  30. Can skin be sterilized?
    No, that is why we have to wear sterile gloves
  31. How do you wash your hands for surgical/sterile asepsis?
    • Turn on water/adjust flow (warm)
    • wet hands, holding hands above elbow
    • wash and rinse, hands up
    • dry each hand using new towel using a rotating motion going from finger to elbows
    • turn water off using towel
  32. Hand washing for Medical Asepsis
    • water on, adjust flow to warm
    • wet hands (hold hands below elbows)
    • wash and rinse with hands down
    • use a paper towel to dry hands patting them do not rub
    • turn off water with paper towel
  33. Which link in the chain of infection is "broken" when PPE is used ?
    Mode of Transmission
  34. What is Asepsis?
    freedom from disease causing microorganisms
  35. Sepsis
    State of being infected
  36. sterile
    • free of microorganisms including spores and viruses
    • requires different  nursing actions
  37. latrogenic infection
    caused as a result of treatment or testing
  38. Nosocomial Infection
    infection acquired at a Hospital or Health Care agency
  39. what is the common indirect transmission of infection
    patients chart
  40. Cleaning
    • involves standard precautions to prevent or control the spread of infection
    • water and mechanical action
  41. disinfecting
    • involves use of chemical detergent
    • damaging to tissues
    • eliminate many or all microorganisms (except bacterial spores) from inanimate objects
  42. universal precautions
    treat every patient the same regardless of Dx or possible infection status
  43. When does nurse asses for latex allergies?
    • During the assessment
    • when assessing to see what PPE's will be necessary
    • you check the chart and ask the client
  44. When should nurse assess for latex allergy?
    • During the assessment
    • when assessing to see what PPE's will be necessary/ what procedure
  45. What are some other things that are in the hospital setting that are made of latex?
    • catheters
    • BP cuffs
    • rubber sheets
    • IV tubing
    • stockings and Binders
    • Adhesive bandages
  46. What factors should be considered when doing an assessment of the client before determining PPE use?
    • Consider what you will be doing
    • you will always wear gloves
  47. when would nurse wear a gown
    • If uniform is likely to get soiled
    • if changing sterile dressing must wear sterile gown
  48. When is a mask used?
    reduce spread of infection Droplet & airborne and splatters of body fluids
  49. When should you wear goggles/eye protection
    • when substances may splatter in to the face
    • if wear Rx glasses they still have to put goggle on over them
  50. According to standard precautions How should soiled linens be handled?
    • Handled as little as possible
    • Do not shake
    • Bundle up with soiled on the inside
    • Hold it away from yourself
  51. Standard Precautions what should you do if you expect splattering of body fluids
    Wear Gloves, Gown. Mask and Gogges
  52. How should client care equipment be handle that is soiled
    • Very Carefully
    • do not let it touch your clothing
    • wear gloves
    • prevent the transfer of microorganisms
  53. According to Standard Precautions Where do used needles go?
    • directly into the sharps container
    • Do not attempt to recap
    • if you have to recap because there is no container use one handed technique to scoop
  54. What are psychosocial needs of a client in isolation?
    • sensory deprivation because their environment lacks stimuli for the client
    • they may suffer from decreased self-esteem
    • everyone that comes into the room ha to take so many precautions it makes the client feel like they are inferior to others
  55. Can Nurses Delegate sterile technique to a UAP?
    No because the nurse is responsible make sure it is done correctly
  56. Lifespan considerations: Infection and newborns
    • NB may not be able to respond to infection due to underdeveloped immune system
    • Infant with infection may not have fever
    • They are born with some naturally acquired immunity passed from the mother
  57. Life span Considerations: Children and Infection
    • 6 mths to 5 yrs are at high risk for febrile seizures
    • Hand washing and hygiene is important in daycares and school
    • Temp less than 102 should not be treated unless to comfort the child
  58. Lifespan Considerations: Infection and Elderly
    • changes take place in the skin, resp tract, GI, Kidneys and immune system
    • Nutrition is often poorer in elderly
    • adequate protein is necessary to maintain immune system.
    • DM increases infection and speed of healing causing alteration in nutrition and peripheral circulation which decreases O2 transport to the tissues
    • Inflammatory response is delayed
  59. What are the steps to follow after exposure to Blood borne pathogens
    • Report Immediately
    • complete report
    • seek appropriate evaluation and follow up
  60. What is included in the eval and follow up after BBP exposure?
    • ID and Document the source
    • testing of the source for Hep, HIV when consent if given
    • making test results avail to source
    • testing of the nurse for hep,hiv with consent
    • Post-exposure prophylaxis if medically indicated
    • Medical & Psychological counseling
  61. Steps for exposure of BBP For a Puncture Wound/laceration
    • follow same instructions plus
    • Allow some bleeding to drain the site, but do not squeeze the tissues
    • Wash/clean the area with soap and water
    • initiate first-aid and seek treatment
  62. BBP exposure for a mucous membrane exposure (eyes, nose, mouth)
    Saline or water flush for 5 to 10 mins
Card Set
Nur 101 exam 5 set #1
nur101 exam 5