Nutriton Bacteria Test

  1. Define: Food spoilage
    Differs from food poisoning as the changes are expected through colour, texture and smell. This can be through poor mishandling of food, poor storage conditions, exposure to 02 or light and absorbing odors from other foods.
  2. Define: Food poisioning
    • Caused by contaminated food, when bacteria and their toxins are present in the food we eat. Bacteria is called pathnogens that we cant see. 
    • causes - time, temperature, nutrients, water, pH
    • symptoms - nausea, stomach cramps, diarrhoea  vomiting, fever and headaches.
  3. What is oxidation?
    When chemicals are in the food and exposed to oxygen meaning loss of nutritional value
  4. How do we keep food fresh?
    • purchase food in small quantities
    •  rotate all ingredients 
    •  Read all use by dates
    • Store food in containers to prologue freshness
  5. What is pathogenic bacteria?
    disease causing bacteria that leads to food poisoning or death
  6. What is non-pathogenic bacteria?
    are not harmful to health and are used in food processing
  7. What is food contamination?
    Bacteria that enters the body along with their toxins produced. Toxins are not easily detected by taste which increased the chances of affecting the consumer. This could be from the consumer eating too many take away meals, or having far less control over the hygiene and preparation of foods we consume.
  8. What is immunocomprimised?
    people who have a weakened immune system and are more vulnerable to infection .
  9. What are some methods of preserving foods? and what is the aim of preservation
    • Methods are used to maintain freshness, quality and the nature of the food such as
    • - jams, smoking, drying, freezing
    • Aim of preservation is to destroy organisms by heat and prevent any fresh organisms dangerous to preserved food.
  10. what is HACCP? (3 food regulations)
    • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
    • A company providing food safety plans which include a hazard analysis (food safety) addressees physical, chemical and biological hazards as a mean of prevention rather than inspection. 
    • benefits to organisations operating within the food supply chain as it enables them to determine key controls over processes and concentrate resources on activities that are critical to ensuring safe food. 
    • Food regulations: - free from harmful levels of additives and contaminants
    • - meets reasonable consumer expectations in terms of composition and quality
    • - labelled carefully - not misleading
  11. what are some exceptions of food not containing a label
    • unpackaged food (meat, vegetables, fruit and nuts)
    • food sold in restaurants 
    • food delivered
    • food sold at fundraising events
    • individually sold products
  12. what is FSANZ
    • Food standards Australia new Zealand
    • protects the health and safety of people around Australia and New Zealand maintaining a safe food supply.
    • responsibilities include: developing standards for food manufacturing, labeling  processing and primary production.  
    • providing information to the consumers leading towards better consumer choice
    • providing risk assessment advice on imported food. 
    • fsanz protects the health of the consumer and also prevents fraudent of safe food, also helps reduce the chances of food producers gaining an unfair advantage over competitors offering substandard products for sale.
  13. What are food additives?
    Products that are added to foods which are not usually eaten on its own. they improve the flavour, texture, increase nutritional value and increased shelf life.
  14. What are food additives for?
    • They improve the taste and appearance of processed food
    • improve the keeping quality or stability of a food
    • preserve food and extend storage life
  15. examples of food additives (4)
    • bulking agents - contribute to the volume of food
    • emulsifiers - facilitate or prevent oil and water from separating layers 
    • flavour enhancers - enhance the existing taste
    • preservatives - prevent the deterioration of food by microorganisms, preventing food spoilage.
  16. What does effective food packaging achieve?
    • Convenient - assist in ease of food and use of storage. 
    • packets are designed to limit the chances of food coming into contact with conditions that may spoil or contaminate it. 
    • oxygen, light, temp, moisture and bacteria affect the packaging.
  17. Packaging materials 
    advantages and disadvantages (3)
    • advantages - waterproof, able to be recycled, able to hold both solids and liquids
    • disadvantages - breaks, does not decompose, heavy
  18. PLASTIC (3,2)
    • advantages - may be microwaved, can be recycled, waterproof, cheap to manufacture
    • disadvantages - causes pollution, can be difficult to recycle when there are different types of plastics.
  19. CELLULOSICS (2,2)
    • advantages - lightweight, transparent
    • disadvantages - tears easily, not very robust.
  20. ALUMINIUM (4,3)
    • advantages - light, durable, recyclable, good conductor of heat. 
    • disadvantages - not microwavable, reacts with salt, easily dented.
  21. STEEL (3,3)
    • advantages - light, durable, recyclable, good conductor of heat. 
    • disadvantages - heavy, not re-usable, may require a can opener.
  22. PAPER (3, 2)
    • advantages - lightweight, biodegradable, recyclable 
    • disadvantages - easily affected by water, not to be in direct contact with food.
  23. types of packaging 
    aseptic packaging
    filling sterile foods into containers used widely for milk.
  24. active packaging
    • allows for gases to be exchanged. 
    • adds gases nitrogen as a preservative
    • removes oxygen, water and C02
    • controlled atmosphere packaging and MAP
  25. controlled atmosphere packaging
    monitoring and control of gases in the atmosphere allowing us to eat food out of season eg. apples
  26. MAP modified atmosphere packaging
    gases are usually incorporated into the packaging prior to sealing to maximize shelf life.
  27. 3 types of Modified atmosphere packaging
    • vaccum packging - involves withdrawing air from the packages to form a tight fit around the food and then sterilizing it.
    • gas packaging - where gases are injected into the food packaging to replace oxygen before sealing. co2 used to decrease enzymic action, bacterial growth and mould formation. 
    • barrier packaging - has liners and barriers which allows some gases to enter and prevents others.
  28. Forfitication of food 
    what is manditory fortification?
    where food manufactures are required to add certain vitamin and minerals to food added in response to significant public health needed.
  29. what is voluntary fortification?
    allows food manufacturers to choose what vitamins and minerals they want to add through fsanz.
  30. Cooking methods
    • ad - faster, conserving nutrients
    • dis - expensive, electricity, soggy and doesnt brown
  31. steaming
    • ad - retains hH20 vitamins, retains colour and shape. 
    • dis- longer than microwaves, lose more vitamins
  32. boiling
    • ad - could retain cooking, no fat involved
    • dis - loses colour, lose crisp texture
  33. BBQ
    • ad - charcoal taste
    • dis - messy, often expensive, messy, rusts. most often contains fat.
  34. Bacteria 
    source of contamination, food sources and symptons. 
    • soc - toxins produced by spores 
    • foods - cereals, rice and veg 
    • symp - incubation 1-6 hours, 2-24 hours diarrhoea
  35. source of contamination, food sources and symptons. 
    • soc - cross contamination, animals and poor food handling (easily lost by heat )
    • food - meat, poultry, eggs, raw, milk 
    • symptons - must be expelled through faeces, incubation 12 - 36 hours, 24 - 48 hours.
  36. source of contamination, food sources and symptons. 
    • soc - not easily destroyed through cooking, 30% of people spread it on their body
    • food - all
    • symptons - infections 24 hours, incubation 30m - 8 hours.
  37. source of contamination, food sources and symptons. 
    • soc - eating contained foods, contact with infected animals. 
    • food - raw dairy, cheese, raw veg, processed meats
    • symptoms - fever, headache  nausea, vomiting. leads to a weaker immune system in children.
  38. what is the role of preservatives
    extend shelf life, does not cover up the poor quality of food but assist in protecting consumers, adds flavour, adds texture and can to be careful as some can be allergic.
Card Set
Nutriton Bacteria Test
Bacteria test Topic 4