chapter 2 intro to lang disorders

  1. Theories of Language Acquisition
    Theory/Transformational Generative Theory of Grammar
    • B.F. Skinner
    • Children acquire verbal behavior through stimulation, response, reinforcement
    • Focus is on observable and measurable aspects of behavior
    • Learning plays key role in acquisition of verbal behaviors
    • Believe that all forms of verbal behavior can be increased or decreased experimentally
    •      • Ex: social reinforcement for babbling
    • Key components in language development
    • Observable, measurable behavior
    • Linguistic competence
    •     -A language users underlying knowledge        of the rules
    •     -Not measurable, therefore not                    emphasized by behaviorists
    • Linguistic performance
    •     -Linguistic knowledge in actual usage
    •     -Measurable, therefore emphasized by          behaviorists
  2. Behaviorist therapy ideas
    • selects specific target responses (specific words I want student to know)
    • creates appropriate antecedents events (how will i get student to do this)
    • reinforces correct responses (prizes for doing correctly)
    • clearly established criterion for success (if get a certain amount right, can get prize)
    •     -9/10 trials
    •     -DTT, ABA examples (reinforce good,            punish ignore bad)
    • major hole in this theory
    •     -doesn't take into consideration what a          child brings to experience
  3. Nativist theory
    • Noam Chomsky
    • theory of syntactic structures as essence of lang
    • lang is a product of the unique human mind
    • children are born with a lang acquisition device LAD
    •     -A specialized lang processor that is a physiological part of the brain
    •     -the LAD has basic lang knowledge then integreate other aspects of the lang to help in learning
    • key: the basic knowledge necessary to acquire lang is present at birth
    • lang competence
    •     -innate
  4. Nativist theory
    lang performance
    • actual porduction of lang
    • doesn't take into consideration fatigue and distraction
    • surface structure
    •     -phrase or sentence you actually hear
    • deep structure
    •     -abstract
    •     -holds the rules of sentence formation
    • transformation
    •     -an operation that relates the depp and surface structures and gives different forms of the sentence
    • speakers can generate an endless variety of sentences through knowing the rules of grammar and transformations
  5. the cognitive theory
    • piagetian stages of cognitive development
    • empahsis on cognition
    • variant of the nativist theory
    • lang acquisition occurs by cognition and general intellectual processes 
    • child develops concepts prior to developing words
  6. the cognitive theory
    strong cognition hypothesis
    • cognition and lang are interrelated
    • 1. cognitive abilties that are essential prerequisites to lang development
    • 2. 4 stages of piagetian development
    • 3. must master the characteristics of one stage in order to progress to the next
    • 4. may demonstrate variations in rate of acquisition of each stage
  7. the cognitive theory
    weak cognition hypothesis
    • cognition only part of a child's lang abilities
    • owens some lang skills develop at the same time as some cognitive skill no proof of this yet
    • cognitive precursors are innate while lang is not (this is different than nativist)
  8. the cognitive theory
    therapy implications
    • Eligibility criteria
    •     -cognitive limitations impact if child is enrolled
    •     -ex: lang age is cognitive age
    •     must assess cognitive skills to determine lang needs
    •     -need to develop skills in cognitive precursors prior to working on lang
  9. reduplicated babbling
    • 6-7 months
    • repeated CV syllables (mamama, dadada)
  10. varigated babbling
    • 9 months
    • mabada
    • limitation of intonation and sounds
  11. protowords
    • prior to 12 months
    • some form of verbal response, not a word necessarily
  12. object permanence
    • 12 months
    • realization that things to do exist even when out of sight
  13. perlocutionary behaviors
    • 0-6 months
    • Signals used
    • that lack communicative effect
    •       •Crying but not necessarily related to              current activity
  14. illocutionary behavior
    • 9-10 months
    • Intentional communication
    • Signal to carry out socially organized action
  15. locutionary stage
    • 12 months
    • intentionally uses words
  16. joint reference
  17. joint reference
    • focus joint attention on an object or event
    • both look at same time
  18. overextensions
    • using the same word for all "alike" items
    •    -all men are daddy
  19. underextensions
    only one item is called by that name
  20. 7 functactions of communicative intent (halliday)
    • 1. regulatory-control behavior of others (do as i tell you
    • 2. Personal-self awareness, own feeling and attitudes (that's interesting, withdrawal)
    • 3. imaginative (lets pretend)
    •    -pretend or play acting, use lang to create environment
    •    -vocalization during doll play
    • 4. instrumental-attempt to get assistance (i want)
    • 5. heuristic-why events, actions occur (why)
    • 6. informative-tell someone something (got something to tell you)
    • 7. interactional-initiate interaction with others (initiation)
  21. 9 communication intentions to signal communicative intent
    • Dore
    • 1. requesting an answer
    • 2. labeling.
    • 3. protesting
    • 4. greeting
    • 5. practicing (what they hear, lang)
    • 6. answering
    • 7. calling/addressing
    • 8. requesting action
    • 9. repeating/imitating
  22. Models of reading
    BOTTOM UP Approach
    • •Reading is a translation of written elements into language
    • •Knowledge of the perceptual features of letters and their correspondence to sounds aids word recognition and decoding
    • • The processing of textual materials is the same as processing oral language except for breaking the graphemic code (Owens )
    • • It assumes that the child must learn to decode print into language
  23. models of reading
    top down approach
    • problem solving approach
    • reading is psychlinguistic guessing game in which the reader uses their knoledge of lang as well as their conceptual knowledge to aid them in recognizing word and sequentially
    •    -ability to fill in the blanks
  24. models of reading
    interactive approach
    requires multiple sensory, perceptual linguistic and conceptual processing strategies in constructing the meaning of text
Card Set
chapter 2 intro to lang disorders
454 lang disorders