1. Encoding
    the first stage of memory processing - Information is gathered and placed in a form that can be held in memory
  2. Storage
    one phase of memory processing which involves holding the encoded information in the brain over time
  3. Retrieval
    one phase of memory processing that involves locating and pulling out stored information from the brain
  4. Memory Trace
    a biochemical change in the brain that represents memory
  5. Neil v. Biggers

    Manson v. Braithwaite
    in these 2 key cases, the courts have emphasized 5 factors that should be taken into account with regard to eye-witness accuracy
  6. Manson Criteria
    5 factors that should be taken into account while evaluating the accuracy of an eyewitness identification.
  7. Voir Dire
    the final stage of the jury selection process during which lawyers and judges question potential jurors to uncover juror biases and to determine who will be chosen to serve on a particular jury.
  8. Cross-Race Effect
    a phenomenon in which people have a more difficult time recognizing the faces of people outside their racial group than the faces of those within their racial group (aka: Own-Race Bias)
  9. Meta- Analysis
    a statistical procedure that compiles the overall findings from a large group of related research studies
  10. Weapon Focus Effect
    the distracting influence of the presence of something unexpected or posing a great danger.
  11. Unconscious Transference
    the unintentional act of misidentifying one person for another as a result of remembering a familiar face of a person near the scene of the crime
  12. Retrieval Inhibition
    the phenomenon of selectively retrieving only some aspects of a memory while inhibiting recall of other aspects
  13. Scripts
    widely held beliefs about sequences of actions that typically occur in particular situations
  14. Postidentification Feedback Effect
    the tendency for biased feedback after identification to distort the memory of eyewitnesses
  15. Cognitive Dissonance
    a psychological theory that holds that once a person has committed to a particular belief or course of action, they will be motivated to justify that belief or behavior
  16. Culprit-Present Lineup
    a lineup in which the actual perpetrator is there
  17. Culprit-Absent Lineup
    a lineup in which the true perpetrator is not there
  18. Estimator Variables
    factors that are outside the control of the legal system and that are related to the accuracy of an eyewitness identification
  19. System Variables
    factors that can be controlled by the legal system - most commonly used in eyewitness identification research
  20. Blind Lineup Administrator
    the person directing the lineup or photo spread has no knowledge of which person in the lineup or photo spread is the actual suspect
  21. Bias-Reducing Instruction
    specific instructions given to eyewitnesses during a lineup identification procedure.
  22. Fillers (aka Foils)
    the alternative suspects in a lineup or photo spread
  23. Unbiased Lineup
    lineups and photo spreads constructed such that the actual suspect does not stand out from the fillers.
  24. Sequential Lineups
    an eyewitness identification process in which the eyewitness sees one person/photograph at a time, decides whether that was the perpetrator, and then continues to the next person
  25. Simultaneous Lineups
    an eyewitness identification process in which several people stand side by side (or several photos are laid out beside one another) and the eyewitness selects the person believed to be the perpetrator
  26. Hypnosis
    a technique for inducing a relaxed, focused state in which the subject is highly receptive and responsive to suggestions
  27. Hypnotic Hypernesia
    improved ability to recall events during hypnosis
  28. Cognitive Interview
    a subtle, step-by-step procedure designed to relax the witness and to reinstate mentally the context surrounding the crime.  The goal is to improve the retrieval of accurate information while avoiding the increased suggestibility of hypnosis.
  29. Anchor Point
    in geographic profiling, the location at which a crime may be committed
  30. Behavioral Investigative Advice (BIA)
    advice offered to investigators by social scientists
  31. Buffer Zone
    in geographic profiling, the area in which the criminal is less likely to commit crimes
  32. Case Linkage
    the process of determining whether two or more crimes were committed by the same person
  33. Disorganized Killers
    people who kill impulsively by picking their victims at random, acting out of sudden rage or because they hear voices telling them to kill
  34. Distance Decay
    in geographic profiling, the principle that the probability of an attack decreases as distance from past crime locations increases
  35. Equivocal Death
    the death of a person when the cause is unknown
  36. Geographic Profiling (aka Criminal Spatial Mapping)
    the process of estimating the general vicinity of the criminal's home, place of work, or the potential location of the next crime
  37. Hedonistic Types
    a type of serial killer who kills for thrills and takes sadistic sexual pleasure in the torture of victims
  38. Mission-Oriented Types
    a type of serial killer who is less likely to be psychotic and is motivated by a desire to kill people they regard as evil or unworthy
  39. NASH System
    a classification system for types of deaths

    • Natural
    • Accidental
    • Suicide
    • Homicide
  40. Organized Killers
    people who kill by carefully selecting and stalking their victims and planning out what they will do to their victims
  41. Power-Oriented Types
    a type of serial killer who enjoys capturing and controlling the victim before killing
  42. Probative Evidence
    information that attempts to prove a proposition at issue in a case or to allow jurors to infer an important fact
  43. Profiling
    the process of drawing inferences about a criminal's personality, behavior, motivation, and demographic characteristics based on crime scenes and other evidence
  44. Psychological Autopsy
    when a death is equivocal, this can be used to reconstruct the psychological state of a person prior to their death
  45. Racial Profiling
    using a person's race or ethnicity for determining whether they are likely to commit a crime
  46. Serial Killers
    Murderer's who kill three or more people in separate events with a cooling-off period between murders
  47. Signature Aspect of the Crime
    the distinctive, personal aspect of the crime that presumably reveals the personality of the killer
  48. Tunnel Vision
    a biased tendency to seek out evidence that fits a profile or stereotype while ignoring contrary evidence
  49. Visionary Types
    serial killers who are usually psychotic.  They have visions or believe they hear voices from God or spirits instructing them to kill certain types of people
  50. Adjudicative Competence
  51. Antipsychotic Medication
  52. Auditory Hallucinations
  53. Bona Fide Doubt
  54. Collateral Sources of Information
  55. Competence
  56. Competence Assessment for Standing Trial  for Defendants With Mental Retardation (CAST-MR)
  57. Competency to Stand Trial
  58. Competency Screening Test
  59. Competency to Plead Guilty
  60. Competency to Waive an Attorney
  61. Computer-Assisted Determination of Competence to Proceed (CADCOMP)
  62. Contextual/Functional Approach
  63. Delusions
  64. Dusky v. United States
  65. Evaluation of Competency to Stand Trial Instrument-Revised (ECST-R)
  66. Fitness Interview Test-Revised (FIT-R)
  67. Flexible Standard
  68. Forensic Assessment Instruments (FAIs)
  69. Foreseeable Future
  70. Gold Standard
  71. Gravely Disabled
  72. Indiana v. Edwards
  73. Knowing, Voluntary, and Intelligent
  74. MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA)
  75. MacArthur Judgment Evaluation (MacJEN)
  76. MacArthur Structured Assessment of the Competencies of Criminal Defendants (MacSAC-CD)
  77. Malingering
  78. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Second Edition (MMPI-2)
  79. Paranoid Schizophrenia
  80. Preponderance of the Evidence Standard
  81. Presumption of CST
  82. Right to Refuse Treatment
  83. Sell v. United States
  84. Statutory Exclusion
  85. Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS)
  86. Thought Disorder
  87. Ultimate Issue Testimony
  88. Actus Reus
  89. Affirmative Defense
  90. ALI Standard
  91. Burden of Proof
  92. Clear and Convincing Evidence Standard
  93. Clinical Psychologist
  94. Cognitive Test
  95. Deterrence
  96. Diminished Capacity
  97. Durham Standard
  98. First Degree Murder
  99. General Deterrence
  100. Guilty but Mentally Ill
  101. Hinckley Case
  102. Insanity
  103. Insanity Defense Attitudes-Revised Scale (IDA-R)
  104. Insanity Defense Reform Act (IDRA)
  105. Involuntary Manslaughter
  106. Irresistible Impulse
  107. M'Naghten Rule
  108. Mens Rea
  109. Mens Rea Defense
  110. Mental State at the Time of Offense Screening Evaluation (MSE)
  111. Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity (NGRI)
  112. Policemen at the Elbow Test
  113. Postpartum Blues
  114. Postpartum Depression
  115. Postpartum Mental Illness
  116. Postpartum Psychosis
  117. Preponderance of Evidence Standard
  118. Retribution
  119. Rogers Criminal Responsibility Assessment Scales (R-CRAS)
  120. Second Degree Murder
  121. Specific Deterrence
  122. Specific Intent Crime
  123. Twinkie Defense
  124. Ultimate Issue Testimony
  125. Volitional Capacity
  126. Wild Beast Test
Card Set