All life has a common ancestry and the diverse organisms alive today are all originated from one life form.
Evolution is a central theme in biology.
Evolutionary processes have generated enormous diversity of life on Earth.
Life arose from non life via...
Molecules that could reproduce themselves and also serve as templates for the synthesis of proteins. It is a critical step for the evolution of life.
Long chain polymer of amino acids with 20 different common side chains. Occurs with its polymer chain extended into fibrous proteins, or coiled into a compact macromolecule in enzymes and other globular proteins. These are the products of genes. It has complex but stable shapes.
Enclose complex proteins and other biological molecules by membranes that contained them in a compact internal environment separate from the surrounding (external) environment.
They form membranous films that can form spherical structures when agitated.
The natural process of membrane formation -> 1st cells with the ability to reproduce
The evolution of the first cellular organisms.
Unicellular organisms that are eclosed by a single outer membrane. ie: bacteria and archaea
Main groups of prokaryotes on Earth today.
Bacteria and Archaea.
Organisms whose cells contain genetic material inside a nucleus and the mitochondria that power the cell.
In multicellular organisms, the division of labor such that different cell types become responsible for different functions (ie: reproduction, digestion) in the cell. Enabled multicellular organisms to increase in size become more efficient at gathering resources and adapting to specific environments.
Energy transformations from breaking down other molecules.
Transforming light energy into biological energy that powers the synthesis of large molecules. It is the basis of much life on Earth because it provides food for other organisms.
A biochemical process that uses oxygen gas to extract energy from nutrient molecules; much more efficient
A biochemical process that does not use oxygen gas to extract energy from nutrient molecules; much less efficient
Oxygen in the atmosphere made it possible for life to move onto land.
The sum total of all the DNA molecules contained in each of its cells; the "blueprint" for existence
The fundamental hereditary material of all living things. Long sequences of 4 different nucleotides (A,T,C, and G). Stored primarily in the nucleus of eukaryotes.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
The subunits that make up DNA and their sequence contains the genetic information.
Specific segments of DNA that encode the information the cell uses to create amino acids and form them into proteins.
An error in the replication process of a genome.
A group of individuals of the same organism (same species) that interact with each other
The change in the genetic makeup of biological populations through time; ACTS ON POPULATIONS
A theory of Charles Darwin in which he argues that the differential survival and reproduction among individuals in a population could account for much of the evolution of life.
Structural, physiological, or behavioral traits that enhance an organism's chances of survival and reproduction in its environment