Lecture Exam

  1. Surface Anatomy
    the superficial anatomical markings
  2. Regional Anatomy
    specific are
  3. Systematic Anatomy
    major organ systems
  4. Developmental Anatomy
    structural changes over time
  5. Comparative
    similarities  and relationships in the anatomical organization of different animals
  6. Clinical Anatomy
    anatomical features that undergo characteristics changes during illness
  7. Surgical Anatomy
    landmarks important for surgical procedures
  8. Radiographic Anatomy
    anatomical structures use of scans on an intact body
  9. Cross Sectional Anatomy
    the use of radiographic tech to look at cross sections of the body
  10. Responsiveness
  11. Growth and Differentiation
    • - increase in size of number of cells
    • - individual cells become specialized to perform specific functions
  12. Reproduction
    the production of new generation of the same organism
  13. Movement
    the ability to change the position of something internally or externally
  14. Anabolism
    build complex molecules
  15. Catabolism
    breakdown of molecules
  16. Absorption
    bringing chemicals into the body
  17. Respiration
    absorption, transport and use of oxygen
  18. Digestion
    nutrients are absorbed
  19. Excretion
    removal of wastes
  20. Skin (Integumentary)
    protects, temperature, vitamin D
  21. Skeletal System
    form blood, site for bone marrow, storage of energy in fat cells
  22. Muscular System
    locomotion for support and produces heat
  23. Nervous System
    response to stimuli functional units neurons and glia cells
  24. Endocrine
    directs longterm changes in activities
  25. Cardiovascular System
    transport nutrients wastes and gases
  26. Lymphoid System
    defends against infection and diseases
  27. Respiratory System
    delivers air to sites
  28. Digestive System
    absorbs nutrients
  29. Urinary System
    excretes excess water, salts, and waste products
  30. Right Upper Quadrant
    liver, gallbladder, right kidney
  31. Right Lower Quadrant
    cecum, appendix, small intestine, reproductive organs
  32. Left Upper Quadrant
    stomach, pancreas, left kidney, spleen, portion of large intestine
  33. Left Lower Quadrant
    most of small intestine, reproductive organs
  34. Right hypochondriac
    right lobe of liver, liver fundus
  35. Epigastric
    left lobe of liver
  36. Left hypochondriac
    stomach fundus, spleen
  37. Right Lumbar
    ascending colon
  38. Umbilical
    Small intestine and transverse colon
  39. Right inguinal
    cecum, appendix
  40. Hypogastric
    urinary bladder, appendix, major portion of the small intestine
  41. Left ingulinal
    ssigmoid colon
  42. Pleural Cavity
  43. Mediastinal Cavity
    space between the apex of the lungs
  44. Abdominal Cavity
    stomach, intestines, spleen, liver
  45. Pelvic Cavity
    urinary bladder
  46. Peritoneal Cavity
    space between serous membrane
  47. Parietal Membrane
    the membrane nearest to the wall
  48. Visceral Membrane
    the membrane farthest from the wall and nearest to the organ
  49. LM
    • light microscopy
    • light pass through
  50. TEM
    • transmission electron microscopy
    • can see through organism
  51. STEM
    • Scanning Electron Microscopy
    • can see on the surface
  52. Phagocytosis
    cell eating
  53. Pinocytosis
    cell drinking
  54. Receptor Mediated
    use specific molecules for binding
  55. Communicating-gap junction
    proper coordination, easy passage,
  56. Occluding junction
    lipid portion of the two plasmalemmae are bound together to sell off the intracellular space between cells
  57. Anchoring junctions
    attach one cell to another mechanical linkage at their lateral or basal surface
  58. Tight junctions
    form a sheet by binding together cell prevent diffusion of fluids and solutes
  59. G1
    • duplication of organelles and protein synthesis
    • normal cell functions, cell growth, check point receive growth signal
  60. S
    • DNA replication
    • synthesis of histones
  61. G2
    • protein synthesis
    • prepares for M
    • checks for mistakes in DNA repication
  62. G0
    state of non division
  63. M
  64. G1 checkpoint
    most important for majority of cell
  65. DNA polymerase
    enzyme that builds new strands of DNA. It does this by adding DNA nucleotides one at a time
  66. Strands
    The leading strand is built continuously, and the lagging strand is built in pieces
  67. topoisomerase
  68. RNA primase
  69. SSP
  70. DNA ligase
  71. Cellularity
    • cells bound close together
    • no intercellular space
  72. Polarity
    • apical surface
    • basal surface
  73. Attachment
    basal layer is attached to the basal lamina
  74. Avascularity
    receives nutrients from underlying tissues
  75. Arrangement
    one or more layers of cells
  76. Regeneration
    continually replaced by stem cells
  77. Microvilli
    for absorption and secretion
  78. Stereocillia
    long microvilli found in the inner ear
  79. Ciliated Epithelium
    moves substances over the apical sufaces
  80. Serous glands
    watery fluids
  81. Mucus glands
    visious mucus
  82. Mixed exocrine
    both serous and mucous (exocrine and endocrine)
  83. Endocrine gland
    ductless into the blood or lymph such as hormones
  84. Exocrine
    through ducts to the surface of epithelium communicates with exterior
  85. Goblets cells
    single cell glands that protect and lubricate unicellular exocrine gland
  86. Simple Tubular
    intestinal glands
  87. Compound Alveolar
    mammary glands
  88. Compound Tubular
    mucous glands in the mouth
  89. Compound Tubuloaveolar
    pancreas, salivary glands, respiratory passages
  90. Merocrine secretion
    secretory vesicles are discharged at the surface of the gland cell released through exocytosis
  91. Apocrine Secretion
    secretions released through loss of cytoplasm which is a fast excretion
  92. Holocrine Secretion
    bursting of cells packed with secretory product this destroys the cell. continued secretion involves the replacement of these cells through the mitotic division of underlying stem cells
  93. Areolar Tissue
    • location: deep in the dermis, between muscles
    • function: connects skin to muscles
  94. Adipose Tissue
    • Location: hypodermis, buttocks, surrounds organs
    • Function: insulation and cushion
  95. Loose Connective Tissues
    volume consists of extracellular is ground substance that cushions shock
  96. Dense Connective Tissue
    consists of extracellular protein fibers
  97. Reticular Tissue
    • Location: liver, spleen, kidney, lymph nodes, appendix, bone marrow
    • Function: supporting framework
  98. Dense Regular
    • fibers are parallel and aligneal along lines of stress
    • Location: elastic tissue, tendons, aponeuroses, ligaments
  99. Tendons
    muscle to bone
  100. Aponeuroses
    covers muscle to muscle or covers entire muscle
  101. Ligaments
    bone to bone
  102. Elastic
    stabilizes the vertebrae
  103. Dense Irregular
    • fibers form a interwoven meshwork
    • Location: nerve and muscle sheaths
    • Function: Provides strength
  104. Blood
    Location: circulatory system - erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
  105. Lymph
    • Location: lymphocytes T & B cells
    • Function: involved with the immune system
  106. Monocytes
    free macrophages
  107. Lymphocytes
    T and B cells
  108. Eosinophil & Neutrophil & Basophil
    • phagocytes
    • inflammation
  109. Hyaline Cartilage Tissue
    bones at the joints
  110. Elastic Cartilage Tissue
    auricle in the ear
  111. Fibrous Cartilage Tissue
    • pads within the knee joints
    • pubic symphysis
  112. Mucous Membrane
    • lines digestive tracts
    • has connections with exterior of the body
  113. Serous Membrane
    • line cavities
    • reduces friction
  114. Cutaneous Membrane
    • makes up the skin
    • thick and waterproof
  115. Synovial Membrane
    • lines the joint cavities
    • reduces friction within the joints
  116. Superficial Fascia
    • between the skin and underlying organs
    • areolar tissue & adipose tissue
    • subcutaneous layer of hypodermis
  117. Deep Fascia
    • forms a strong fibrous internal framework
    • dense connective tissue
    • bounds to capsules, tendons, ligaments
  118. Subserous Fascia
    • between serous membranes and deep fascia
    • areolar tissue that line cavities
  119. Skeletal muscle
    • has striations
    • voluntary muscle
  120. Smooth muscle
    • ends of cells are pointy
    • single nucleus
    • nonstriated and involuntary muscle
  121. Cardiac Muscle
    • has intercalated discs
    • striated and involuntary muscle
  122. Neuron
    transmit impulses
  123. Neuroglia
    supporting framework that protect the neurons and provide nutrients
  124. Mesoderm
    forms connective tissues of limbs bones joints and ligaments
  125. Epiderm
    • hair nails skin
    • brain spinal cord
  126. Endoderm
    epithelial lining and glands of digestive tract
  127. Trophoblast
    outside layer that forms the placenta
  128. Inner cell mass
    the fetus
  129. zygote
    fertilized egg
  130. morula
    solid ball of cells
  131. mesechyme
    form from endoderm differentiates to form the connective tissue
  132. Epidermis Layers
    • dermis
    • papillary layer
    • reticular layer
    • subcutaneous layer
  133. Stratum Basale
    • deepest innermost layer
    • attachment to the basal lamina
    • contains stem cells
    • actively mitotic cells
  134. Stratum Spinosum
    keratinocytes bound together by macula adherens
  135. Stratum Granulosum
    cell release glycolipids to make layer water resistant prevents nutrients from passing to the cell
  136. Stratum Lucidum
    • Thick skin only
    • palms and soles of feet
  137. Stratum Corneum
    • most superficial layer
    • made of shear protection against abrasion and penetration
    • keratinized/cornified
  138. keratinocytes
    inhibitory cytokines enzymes stimulates inflammation and activate Langerhans
  139. Melanocytes
    • pigment cells
    • produce melanin
    • keratinocytes in vesicles'
  140. Merkel cells
    • sensory cells
    • detect sensitivity
  141. Langerhan cells
    • macrophages, phagocytic cell of the immune system
    • initates immune response for carer cells and pathogens
  142. Epidermal Ridges
    • dermal papillae extended into the dermis
    • creates ridges
  143. Color
    • blood supply
    • melaton - tryosine
    • carotene - yellowish pigament
  144. Papillary Layer
    nourishes and supports overlying epidermis
  145. Reticular Layer
    • Store lipids
    • restricts pathogen spread
    • attaches skin
    • sensory receptor
    • meshwork of collagen & elastic fibers
  146. Hair made of
    • nonliving structures
    • hard keratin
  147. Hair follicles
    complex organs extend deep from the dermis
  148. chief portions
    • root - in skin
    • shaft - above skin
    • bulb
  149. medulla
    central core
  150. cortex
    surrounds medulla
  151. cuticle
    outermost layer
  152. vellus hairs
    covers most of the body each fuzz
  153. intermediate hairs
    covers arms and legs
  154. terminal hairs
    covers head, axillary and pubic area
  155. Hair function
    • protection
    • insulation
    • guards entrance to nose and ears
    • send impulses to nerves
    • contracts arrector pili
  156. sebaceous gland
    oil secrete sebum
  157. sweat glands
    • apocrine gland - odorous secretion
    • ceminous, mammory, eccrine
  158. Merocrine gland
    • eccrine
    • produces sweat
    • sensible perspiration
  159. Apocrine glands
    • use meocrine secretion through exocytosis
    • axillary, anal, and genital areas
    • viscous secretion
  160. Mammary glands
    • special type of apocrine gland
    • larger more complex apocrine gland
  161. Cercuminous gland
    produces cerumen, ear wax
  162. Nail
    • nail body - covers bed
    • nail folds - extending from the nail root
    • eponchum - cuticle fold of the stratum corneum
Card Set
Lecture Exam
Chapter 12345