1. 7 functions of integumentary system?


    -maintain hydration

    -temp regulation

    -vit D production

    -detection of stimuli

    -blood reservoir

  2. how many layers does the integumentary system have?
    2 laers
  3. what are the 2 layers of integumentary system?

  4. what is the epidermis?
    • thick keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
    • *protective
  5. what are the 4 cell types of the epidermis?


    -langerhan's cells

    -merkel cells
  6. epidermis-4 cell types- Keratinocytes (2)
    -made of keratin

    -deep layer is mitotic
  7. epidermis-4 cell types- what are melanocytes? (2)
    -basal layer of epidermis

    -manufacture protein melanin
  8. epidermis-4 cell types- Melanocyte-how is melanin trasnferred?
    it is transferred from one melanocyte to keratinocyte in between the sun and nucleus to prevent the nucleus from being damaged by UV lights
  9. epidermis-4 cell types- Langerhans cells (2)
    • -immune system
    • *WBC

    • -it is manufactured in bone marrow
    • *they make their way to epidermis
  10. epidermis-4 cell types- merkel cells
    • -sensory receptor cells
    • *they are assocaited with a nerve ending
  11. how often is a new epidermis generated?
    35-45 days
  12. layers of epidermis- stratum germinativum (basale) (3)


  13. layers of epidermis- Stratum spinosum
    -spiny projections artifact

    ***it is above stratum germinativum basale
  14. layers of epidermis- Stratum granulosum (3)
    • -contains water proofing layer
    • *this prevents water from getting into skin

    -contains granules

    -last cells to be nourished by blood indirectly
  15. layers of epidermis- stratum lucidum
    • -only present in thick skin
    • *palms and soles
  16. layers of epidermis- stratum corneum (3)


    -this is the part of epidermis that flakes off
  17. how is the dermis bound together by? (3)


    -reticular fibers

    **Synthesized by fibroblasts
  18. dermis- description of papillary layer? (4)
    • -thin
    • *superficial

    -contains blood vessels

    -projections and indentations of papillae

    • -dermal ridges
    • *palms of hand, soles, and feet
    • **thiis makes foot and hand prints
  19. layers of epidermis- reticular layer (4)
    -has collagen bundles

    -binds water

    • -has elastin
    • *it gives it its flexibility

    • -this is where stretch marks occur
    • *striae
    • **which is collagen fibers breaking
  20. color,pigments- where is melanin synthesized?
    melanocyte protein
  21. color,pigments- melanin- what are freckles and moles?
    concentrations of melanin
  22. color,pigments-  what 4 colors can melanin be?



  23. color,pigments- does melanin vary by racial/ethinic?
    yes, people are darker around the equator
  24. color,pigments- 3 types of color/pigments


  25. color,pigments- Carotene
    • can give off the color on skin depending what one eats
    • *yellow
  26. color,pigments- hemoglobin- what happens if a person is redder than sombody?
    the persn that is redder is healthier.
  27. appendages- what is hair?
    • layers of dead cells
    • *keratinocytes
  28. what is hair synthesized from?
    hard keratin
  29. appendages-what is hard keratin? (3)
    -more compact

    -has sulfur bonds

  30. appendages-What does the shape of a shaft determine?
    shape of hair
  31. appendages--shape of shaft- flat
    kinky curly
  32. appendages--shape of shaft- oval
  33. appendages--shape of shaft- round
    straight and course
  34. appendages- how many layers does a shaft have?


  35. appendages- is the root of the hair visible?
    no, it is embedded in the skin
  36. appendages- what determins the color of hair?
    melanocytes at the base of follicle
  37. appendages- where does the hair of the shaft extend to?
  38. appendages- hair follicle- what is the hair bulb?
    this is where grwth happens in the amtrix
  39. appendages- hair follicle- what is root hair plexus?
    • nerve that wraps around the entire hair shaft.
    • *it is important for sensation
  40. appendages- hair follicle- what does the papillae do?
    provides blood supply for the matrix
  41. appendages- hair follicle- ehat is the arrector pili muscle?
    this causes goosbumps
  42. appendages- what are nails?
    modification of exsiting epidermis
  43. appendages- nails- what makes up the nails
    • -hard keratin
    • *it is stratum corneum
  44. appendages- nails- where is the nail matrix?
    • stratum germinativum of the epidermis
    • *look at diagram
  45. glands- what is the function of sweat?
    is temperature regulation
  46. glands-sweat- where is the eccrine located ? (2)
    -open on much of the body

    -concentrated in skin of palms, forehead, and soles of feet
  47. glands-sweat-eccrine- description of eccrine? (2)

  48. glands-sweat- what is the pH of sweat?
  49. glands-sweat- Sweat AND blood
    sweat acts as a filtrate of blood
  50. glands-sweat- what 6 things does sweat contain?


    -some vit C



    • -metabolic wastes
    • *urea
  51. glands-sweat- what controls sweat?
    sympathetic nervous system
  52. glands-sweat- what are the 2 merocrine cells called?

  53. glands-sweat- where are apocrine located?
    axillary and anogenital regions
  54. glands-sweat- which mercrine gland is larger betwee the 2?
  55. glands-sweat- where does the apocrine empty out its ducts?
    into hair follicles
  56. glands-sweat-which lie deeper into the dermis between the 2 merocrine glands?
  57. glands-sweat-apocrine- what do apocrine secrete? (3)


  58. glands-sweat- is apocrine odorless?
    yes, but bacteria on the skin causes the body odor
  59. glands-sweat- when do apocrine begin their function?
    at puberty
  60. glands-sweat- are apocrine sweat glands involve in temepreature regulation?
  61. glands-sweat- what system controls the apocrine?
    sympatheitc nervous system
  62. glands-sweat- what are ceruminois glands?
    wax-producing at the external ear canal
  63. glands-sweat- what are mammary glands?
    they secrete milk
  64. glands-sebaceous- what are sebaceous glands?
    alveolar holocrine glands
  65. glands-sebaceous- where are the sebaceous glands located?
    everywehre but palsm of hands and soles of feet
  66. glands-sebaceous- relationship between sebaceous glands and hair follicles
    sebaceous galnds are outgrowths of hair follicles
  67. glands-sebaceous- what do they secrret?
    • sebum
    • *oily lipids
  68. glands-sebaceous- waht happens if the ducts are small and narrow?
    difficult to get sebum out and sets up growth of acne
  69. glands-sebaceous what happens if ducts are wide and large?
    person will not be prone to having acne
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integumentary system