1. What is a biome?
    • A major division of the terrestrial environment distinguished by the predominant plant growth form and associated with a particular climate
    • Biomes disregard species composition
  2. What is solar radiation?
    Atmosphere molecules absorb sunlight
  3. Describe Hadley cells.
    • Warm air rises and cools, dropping rain
    • Cool air is pushed towards the pulls 
    • Dense, dry air descends, and absorbs moisture
    • There are three circulation cells in both hemispheres
  4. Define Ecology.
    • Ecology is the study of all the complex interrelations referred to by Darwin as the conditions for the struggle for existence 
    • Oikos (Home)
    • -Ology (Study of)
    • Defined by Ernst Haeckel 1866
  5. Describe the Rain Shadow effect.
    • Moisture-laden air blows onshore from Pacific Ocean (west)
    • Air rises over mountains, cools, and rain falls
    • On the East side dry air creates dessert conditions (This side is in rain shadow)
  6. What factors are important for aquatic systems?
    • Salt vs Fresh water
    • Temperature
    • Light
    • Flow
  7. Describe Intertidal Zone.
    • Where you swim
    • Adapted to surf attachment structures
    • Able to deal with desiccation
  8. Describe Neritic Zone
    • Tropics - Coral reefs, warm water, 
    • Temperate regions - Kelp Forests, cold water, Sea Otters
    • Where you scuba dive
  9. Describe Oceanic Zone.
    • No structure
    • Most life is near surface 
    • Contains Phytoplankton, Nekton 
    • Fascinating bottom dwellers
  10. Where is the Benthic Zone?
    • Sea bed
    • Contains decomposing organisms on floor
  11. Where is the Photic Zone?
    Thin zone over the top where light can still be seen through
  12. Where is the Aphotic Zone?
    Deep where light can no longer be seen from the surface
  13. What is an Estuary?
    • Where freshwater meets saltwater
    • Variable salinity with tides and rainfall
    • Rich in nutrients 
    • Salt tolerant vegetation
    • Often bordered by coastal wetlands
  14. What are nurseries?
    • Located in estuaries 
    • Fish swim in, lay eggs, and swim out for protection
    • Oysters, crabs, and many fish
  15. What are the two freshwater systems?
    • Flowing systems (Rivers) - Lotic
    • Sitting systems (Lakes) - Lentic
  16. What are the lake zones?
    • Littoral - Close to shore: Macrophytes, snails, crayfish, insects, amphibians and small fish
    • Limnetic - Away from shore: Primary production of phytoplankton, Larger fish
  17. What are the differences between headwater streams and large rivers?
    • Increase temperature
    • Decrease flow (gradient)
    • Differences in bed make up (Rocky vs Silt)
  18. Proximate behavior
    Answers the "How" question
  19. Ultimate Behavior
    Answers the "Why"
  20. What is fixed action pattern (FAP)?
    • Innate behavior 
    • Ex. Once a goose decides to do something it has to do that before anything else
    • Most behavior is Flexible and conditional dependent not like FAP
  21. Behavior is often a mix of ____ and _____?
    innate and learned
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