Mammalian Physiology 1

  1. What is physiology? (Definition)
    Physiology is the study of the normal functioning of an organism
  2. What is anatomy?
    Anatomy is the study of structure
  3. What are the 10 organ systems?
    • Skin (integumentary)
    • Endocrine system
    • Gut
    • Metabolism
    • Nervous system
    • Excretion system
    • Sensory
    • Circulatory
    • Immune
    • Musculoskeletal
  4. How many chambers are there in the heart?
  5. What is the exchange epithelium?
    Allows the red blood cells that are passing through the lungs to get rid of CO2 and pick up O2
  6. What do pacemakers do?
    Set rate of heart beat
  7. What regulates the heart beat?
  8. What regulates how quickly the heart beats?
    How quickly a cell fires in the nervous system
  9. What are some hallmarks of heart disease?
    Slow breathing, pulmonary oedema, arterial clogging, cholesterol
  10. What is homeostasis?
    How the body maintains everything
  11. What are some ways in which you can change your epigenome?
    Diet, exercise, reducing stress, etc
  12. What the less dense form of chromatin?
  13. What is euchromatin?
    Contains both epigenetic and genetic components
  14. Why do muscles have so much mitochondria?
    They need to constantly supply ATP
  15. What is the mitochondratic index?
    How fast a cell is reproducing, which can also determine the health of the cell
  16. What allows cells to specialize?
    Different genes being expressed
  17. What are the 4 major tissue types?
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  18. Which muscle is responsible for movement?
    Skeletal muscle
  19. What is smooth muscle responsible for?
    Basic functions such as digestion
  20. What is the nervous system responsible for?
    Voluntary and involuntary processes, simulating hormones, responding to environmental cues
  21. What are the characteristic of epithelial cells?
    One or more layers of densely arranged cells with very little extracellular matrix
  22. What are the 3 functions of epithelial cells?
    • 1. Covers and protects the body surface (sheets)
    • 2. Lines body cavities
    • 3. Movement of substances, glandular activity (secretory)
  23. Where are epithelial cells found?
    Skin, lining of respiratory tract, digestive tract, urinary, glands of the body
  24. What are the characteristics of connective tissue?
    Few cells surrounded by lots of extracellular matrix
  25. What are the functions of connective tissue?
    Connect anchors and supports body structures, transport
  26. Where is connective tissue found?
    Bone, tendons, blood, fat
  27. Except for blood cells, what do all connective tissue cells have in common?
    Except for blood cells, all connective tissue cells (fibroblasts) secrete extracellular matrix molecules such as collagen to give support and form to structures
  28. What are the characteristics of muscle cells?
    Long fiberlike cells
  29. What are the functions of muscle cells?
    Can contract and generate force
  30. Where are muscle cells found?
    Heart, skeletal, hollow organs
  31. What does smooth muscle look like?
    • Smooth muscle is long and spindle like
    • Contracts in a different way than skeletal muscle
  32. Which muscle type is NOT striated?
    Smooth muscles
  33. Which muscle cells are multinucleated?
    Skeletal muscle
  34. Where is smooth muscle found?
    Hollow organs
  35. What are some characteristics of nervous tissue?
    • Cells specialized for conducting nerve impulses
    • Many types
  36. What are some functions of nervous tissue?
    Initiate and transmit electrical impulses
  37. Where is nervous tissue found?
    Brain, spinal cord and nerves
  38. What happens when the body cannot remain in homeostasis?
    Disease or death will occur
  39. How does the body maintain homeostasis in glucose metabolism?
    • If you have low glucose the body will make an adjustment to slow glucose uptake and keep more in the bloodstream
    • More glucose is also released by the liver
  40. What is type 1 diabetes?
    Completely deficient with inability to make insulin- require insulin injections
  41. What is type 2 diabetes?
    Occurs later in life, brought about by obesity (metabolic syndrome) insulin resistance, change in diet and exercise is recommended
  42. How does a sensor work in homeostatic mechanisms?
    Detects and reacts to any changes from normal set point
  43. How does an integrating, or control centre work in homeostatic mechanisms?
    Information is analyzed and if needed, a specific action is initiated
  44. How does the effector mechanism work in homeostatic mechanisms?
    Brings about the change to return to the set point
  45. How does feedback work in homeostatic mechanisms?
    Process of information about a variable constantly flowing back from the sensor to the integrator
  46. How does a negative feedback control system work?
    • Are inhibitory
    • Act to reset physiological variables
    • Are responsible for maintaining homeostasis (stabilize system)
    • Are much more common than positive feedback control systems
  47. How does a positive feedback control system work?
    • Are stimulatory
    • Amplify or reinforce the change that is occurring
    • Tend to produce destabilizing effects and disrupt homeostasis
    • Bring specific body functions to swift completion
  48. Which is more common, positive or negative feedback?
  49. What is an example of positive feedback?
    When a woman goes into labour, when the water breaks, it stimulates the hypothalamus to release oxytocin which acts to increase the amount of contractions to bring about labour.  If a woman has a very prolonged labour, putting the patient on 'the drip' is an IV of oxytocin
  50. When a woman is in labour for a prolonged period of time, they put her on 'the drip'.  What is this?
    An IV of oxytocin to increase the amount of contractions and induce labour
  51. How do follicles display positive feedback?
    • Primary follicle has one layer of cells
    • Estradiol causes cells to proliferate and go through mitosis
    • Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary releases FSH (follicle stimulating hormone)
    • FSH acts on cells within the ovary that contains the oocyte and granulosa cells
    • granulosa cells create estradiol E17B
  52. What destabilizes the positive feedback of estradiol E17B in the follicles?
    The destabilizing effect is when the oocyte is big enough it ovulates
  53. What are chemoreceptors?
    Every time blood goes by, it takes measurements, ie. how salty it is how much potassium, how much alcohol
  54. What is the thirst mechanism?
    When chemoreceptors detect a high salt content of the blood and your body is triggered to supplement with water to dilute the concentration
  55. What do fibroblasts do?
    Make fibre known as extracellular matrix
  56. What are adipocytes?
    Fat cells
  57. What are macrophages?
    Go around and eat up foreign things like bacteria
  58. Why must all tissues be vascularized?
    To gain nutrients and get rid of toxins
  59. Why are tendons and ligaments so difficult to heal when injured?
    Very little vasculature, so poor blood flow
  60. How are tendon and ligament injuries often healed?
    Use high frequency ultrasound, which irritates it and causes inflammation, which draws blood to the area and helps it heal
  61. What are the 4 main types of tissue?
    • Epithelial
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
    • Connective
  62. What are the three types of muscle tissue?
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
    • Skeletal
  63. What is the only multi-nucleated cell?
    Skeletal muscle cells
  64. How do you recognize skeletal muscle cells?
    Multi-nucleated and striated
  65. What are the black squiggly lines on cardiac muscle?
    Intercalated disks- the heart needs to contract which requires a very specialized electro-conduction system of the heart
  66. Where is smooth muscle found?
    Found in hollow organs
  67. How do you recognize smooth muscle?
    Not striated
  68. How do nerve cells transmit signals?
    • Dendrites receive incoming signals, then integrate it to decide wether it is strong enough
    • If the signal is strong enough, then it travels down the axon
    • Action potential reaches the synapse
    • Signals can terminate on another neuron, or on a muscle cell
  69. What is the myelin sheath?
    Fat cells that surround the axon
Card Set
Mammalian Physiology 1
Mammalian Physiology 1