1. Zachary Taylor
    • Whig Party
    • Had no prior political background
    • Owned slaves in Louisiana
    • Won election of 1848
  2. Free Soil Party
    • Based on antislavery advocation
    • Nominated Martin Van Buren for election of 1848
    • They didn't want slavery in the new territories because it would cause competition
  3. Lewis Cass
    • The democratic nominee for president in the election of 1848
    • Supported the doctrrine of popular sovereignty
  4. Common Property Doctrine
    Stated that congress had no constitutional authority to regulate slavery in the territories and citizens could take their property into any area that is commonly owned by the states
  5. Popular Sovereignty
    Stated that the people of the territories should decide the issue of slavery in their territory
  6. Gold Rush
    Gold was discovered in California
  7. Underground Railroad
    • Established to help slaves escape the South
    • Used antislavery homes as shelters
  8. Harriet Tubman
    Conductor of the Underground Railroad
  9. Compromise of 1850
    • Postponed the issue of slavery for 10 years
    • Whig leaders Henry Clay and Daniel Webster
    • Democrat leader Stephen A. Douglass
    • Zachary Taylor wouldn't agree to a compromise, but he died and his VP supported the compromise
    • It admitted California as a free state
    • Allowed the rest of the Mexican Cession to have popular sovereignty
    • Resolved the boundary dispute with Texas
    • Abolished slavery in D.C.
    • Created the Fugitive Slave Act
  10. Millard Fillmore
    Zachary Taylor's vice president that took over the presidency when Taylor died
  11. Fugitive Slave Act
    Legalized the capture of runaway slaves in the North
  12. Election of 1852
    • Northern Whigs: General Winfield Scott
    • Southern Whigs voted with the Democrats because they didn't approve of Scott
    • Democrats: Franklin Pierce
    • Pierce won the election
  13. Nicaragua
    • Southerners wanted more territory to expand slavery
    • William Walker made himself president of Nicaragua but was killed
    • Britain wanted Nicaragua for a canal but it was against the Monroe Doctrine
  14. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty of 1850
    Forbid both America and Britain from fortifying control over any future canal
  15. Ostend Manifesto
    • Written in secret, but leaked out
    • Stated that the Pierce administration should offer Spain $120 million for Cuba and take it by force if the offer was rejected
  16. Gadsden Purchase
    The US purchased some land in Northern Mexico for $10 million to build the transcontinental railroad
  17. Kansas-Nebraska Act
    • Designed to organize the territories and allow popular sovereignty to be the method of choosing free or slave state status
    • It was understood that Nebraska would be a free state and Kansas would be a slave state, keeping balance in congress
    • The act was passed
  18. Bleeding Kansas
    • Lawrence, Kansas was attacked by proslavery advocates
    • John Brown-abolitionist: Pottawatomie Massacre
  19. Lecompton Constitution
    • Was written by proslavery advocates as the constitution to the state of Kansas
    • Protected slavery
    • Free soilers boycotted the election
    • It was passed, but then revoked when a reelection took place
  20. James Buchanan
    • Democratic candidate that defeated John C. Fremont and Millard Fillmore in the election of 1856
    • Supported the Lecompton Constitution in Kansas
  21. Charles Sumner
    • A senator from Massachusetts that was attacked after giving a speech where he condemned proslavery and insulted Stephen Douglas and Andrew Butler from South Carolina
    • Butler's nephew Preston Brooks attacked him with his cane until it broke
  22. Dred Scot Decision
    • Dred Scot was a slave who had lived on free soil for five years
    • Abolitionists sued for his freedom
    • Supreme Court decided that because he wasn't a citizen, he couldn't sue in federal court
    • Because a slave was private property, he could be taken into any territory and legally remain a slave
    • Argued that the 5th amendment forbade congress from depriving people from private property without the due process of law
    • Also stated that the Missouro Compromise was unconstitutional and Congress had no authority to ban slavery
  23. Panic of 1857
    • Wasn't as bad as previous panics
    • Inflated currency was caused by the Gold Rush and land speculation
    • The North was hit harder than the South
  24. Lincoln-Douglas Debates
    • Took place during the election of the Illinois Senator
    • Abraham Licoln ran against Stephen Douglas
    • Lincoln asked the Freeport Question
    • Douglas won the election, but Lincoln gained popularity
  25. Freeport Doctrine
    What if the people of a territory should vote slavery down? The Supreme Court said they could not do this, who is right?
  26. John Brown at Harper's Ferry
    • John Brown took federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry and tried to invade the South, but the slaves didn't rebel
    • Attack was unsuccessful and Brown was hung on the basis of treaty
  27. Election of 1860
    • Republican: Abraham Lincoln
    • Northern Democrats: Stephen Douglas
    • Southern Democrats: John C. Breckinridge
    • Constitutional Union Party: John Bell
    • Licoln won
  28. Confederate States of America
    • Jefferson Davis as president
    • Richmond, Virginia as capital
  29. Crittenden Amendments
    Protected slavery south of the 36/30 parallel according to the Missouri Compromise
  30. Fort Sumter
    • Was owned by the Union, but located in the Confederacy
    • Ran out of supplies
    • Lincoln asked to send supplies, but was attacked anyway
    • Start of the Civil War
  31. Border States
    • Slave states that remained in the Union
    • Missouri
    • Kentucky
    • West Virginia (created in the split)
    • Maryland
    • Deleware
  32. Southern Advantages
    • Defensive war
    • Greater morale in the beginning
    • Talented military
  33. Southern Weaknesses
    • No factories to manufacture supplies
    • Poor transportation
    • Poor economy
  34. Northern Advantages
    • Good economy
    • Better Navy
    • More manpower
  35. Northern Weaknesses
    • Weren't prepared for military life
    • Not well trained military
  36. The Trent
    • A British ship that had two Confederate diplomats onboard near a Union warship
    • Union removed diplomats
    • Lincoln released them, but it still angered Britain
  37. The Alabama
    Confederate ship being built in a British neutral port
  38. Napoleon III
    • Was in control of France
    • Took control of Mexico and occupied Mexico City
    • Violated the Monroe Doctrine
    • Archduke Maximilian as emporer of Mexico
  39. Jefferson Davis as President
    • Had a political background
    • Found it hartd to unify a collection of states
    • Didn't believe in compromise
  40. Abraham Lincoln as President
    • Wanted to preserve the Union
    • Had a political background
    • Was personable
    • Thought authority was neccessary in crisis
    • Increased the army and supervised voting in the border states
  41. First Battle of Bull Run
    • Union: Irvin McDowell
    • Confederate: P.G.T. Beauregard and Stonewall Jackson
    • Union defeated
  42. Anaconda Plan
    • Union General Winfield Scott came up with it
    • Designed to surround the Confederate army using a naval blockade, the Mississippi River, and placing armies strategically.
  43. Fort Donelson and Fort Henry
    • Union: Ulysses S. Grant
    • Union victory
  44. Shiloh
    • Union: Grant
    • marched to Shiloh
    • Pushed Confederate army to Corinth, Mississippi
    • Lost 13,000 soldiers
    • Union victory
  45. Union Admiral David Farragut
    Marched from New Orleans to Baton Rouge, then on to Port Hudson
  46. Peninsula Campaign
    • Union: George McClellan
    • Confederate: Joseph E. Johnston and Robert E. Lee
    • Goal to capture the Confederate capital
    • Included the Battle of Seven Pines and the Seven Days Battle
  47. Second Battle of Bull Run
    Confederate Victory
  48. Battle of Antietam
    • Union: McClellan
    • Confederate: Lee
    • Lee lost his battle plans and Union found them
    • Lee was forced to retreat
    • Lincoln was disgusted with McClellan for not taking the chance to destroy Lee
    • Union victory
  49. Emancipation Proclamation
    Lincoln declared all slaves in the states of rebellion free, but it excluded the border states
  50. Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest
    • A former slave trader and the founder of the KKK
    • Captured Fort Pillow in Tennessee
  51. Union General Ambrose E. Burnside
    • Lincoln replaced McClellan with Burnside
    • Was too decisive and jumped into battle without preparation
    • Outnumbered Lee at Fredericksburg in Virginia, but lost
  52. Union General Joseph Hooker
    • Lincoln replaced Burnside with Hooker
    • Outnumbered Lee at Chancellorsville but was forced to retreat
  53. Union General George Meade
    • Lincoln replaced Hooker with Meade
    • Fought Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg where he outnumbered Lee
    • Union Victory
  54. Pickett's Charge
    • Took place on the third day of battle in Gettysburg
    • Lee sent his army through the middle of the line to break through it, but it was in an open field and the Union had high ground
    • The Union picked them off
  55. Gettysburg Address
    Lincoln dedicated a nationl cemetary to the battlefield
  56. Battle of Vicksburg
    • Union: Grant
    • Confederate: John Pemberton
    • Union victory
  57. Chattanooga
    • Was the gateway to the lower South and opened the way to Atlanta, GA
    • Union: William Rosecrans
    • Confederate: Braxton Braggs
    • Union victory
  58. Battle of the Wilderness and Cold Harbor
    • Union: Grant
    • Confederate: Lee
    • Union victory
  59. Union General William T. Sherman
    Marched to Atlanta from the West
  60. Election of 1864
    • Democrats who wanted peace were Copperheads: George McClellan
    • War Democrats and Republicans came together as a party: Lincoln
    • Lincoln reelected
  61. Appomattox Court House
    Lee surrendered to Grant
  62. Lincoln Assassination
    • Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth
    • Andrew Johnson took Lincoln's place
  63. 10% Reconstruction Plan
    Stated that if 10% of the citizens in a state were to declare an oath to the US, then the state could be readmitted to the union
  64. Radical Republicans
    Wanted to punish the South and help the freed slaves
  65. 13th Amendment
    Freed the slaves
  66. Freedmen's Bureau
    A welfare agency for the freed slaves
  67. Black Codes
    • Regulated the lives of the freed slaves and guaranteed a steady suply of labor
    • Corrupt
  68. Sharecropping
    Someone owned the property you used and gathered the profit from the crops you grew
  69. 14th Amendment
    Gave citizenship to the male freed slaves
  70. Military Reconstruction Act
    • To enforce the Congressional Reconstruction Plan
    • It divided the South into five military districts commanded by union generals and policed by soldiers
  71. 15th Amendment
    Gave the right to vote to freed slaves at the federal level
  72. Scalawags
    White southern republicans who collaborated with the North
  73. Carpetbaggers
    Northerners who moved South to make money off of the reconstruction
  74. Redeemers
    Former leaders of the South before reconstruction that took over once the union soldiers left
  75. Klu Klux Klan
    • Southern whites
    • Used intimidation, fear, violence, and murder to keep the black community subjugated
  76. Force Acts
    Sent federal troops into the South to stop the KKK but it was too late
  77. Tenure of Office Act
    Stated that the president had to get the consent of the senate in order to get rid of or fire any appointee of the senate
  78. Alaska
    • Was owned by Russia
    • Purchased by the US for $7 million
    • Secretary of State Seward was in charge of the purchase
    • Gold and oil was found
  79. Election of 1868
    • Republicans: Grant
    • Democrats: Horation Seymour
    • Grant won
  80. Era of Good Stealings
    Grant's administration was corrupt
  81. Credit Mobilier Scandal
    • Major stockholders in the Union Pacific Railroad formed a company and gave it money to build part of the railroad
    • They gave shares of the company to congressmen to make money
  82. Whiskey Ring
    Distillers bribed government officials to relieve the tax on liquor
  83. Election of 1872
    • Republicans revolted from Grant and nominated Horace Greeley, becoming the Liberal Republicans
    • Grant still won the election
Card Set
Civil War