Orgo Ch 2 Notes Pt. 3

  1. If the structure has sp3 geometry, but is bound to only one other atom, what is the angle?
    no bond angle
  2. In order to have a cis-trans, what?
    the rest of the structure must be identical.
  3. Why does CO2 have zero dipole, but SO2 has?
    • because CO2 is a linear structure: they cancel out
    • SO2 is bent: so they dont
  4. When will something hydrogen bond with itself?
    when it has the NH or OH
  5. When will something hydrogen bond with water?
    when it has the N or O
  6. What does water solubility depend on?
    the number of carbons and the number of hydrogen-bonding grouops in a molecule
  7. A structure with one hydrogen-bonding group can carry __ to be ++
    • three carbons
    • to be miscible (completely soluble)
  8. A structure with four carbons and only one hydrogen bonding group is __.
    partially soluble
  9. A structure with five or more carbons is?
    slightly soluble "insoluble"
  10. Four regions of electron density = __
    - only __ shapes in orgo. 
    sp3= __
    sp2= __
    • four hybrid orbits
    • three
    • saturated center
    • has three sigma bonds and the remaining p orbital will be a pi bond
  11. Explain sp2
    • positive with positive; negative with negative
    • they have to parallel to each other adn in phase
    • weaker and more exposed
  12. Pi bond is __ to the plane of the molecule. 
    Every C-C bond only has __.
    • perp. 
    • one sigma bond
  13. Isomers: stereoisomers
    • compounds that don't rotate
    • cofiguration around a double bond determines the compound
  14. Isomers: constitutional
    those that have different connectivities
  15. London Dispersion Forces
    - surface area
    - affects what?
    - lasting time?
    • very weak forces
    • greater surface area = higher mp
    • greater surface area= increased chance at keeping them together (increased potential attraction)
    • affects solubility and properties
    • temporary dipoles
  16. Least branched isomer has __
    Most branched isomer has __.
    • greatest BP
    • lowest BP
  17. In stereoisomers, bonding takes place in __.
    constructive overlap
  18. Lone pairs are__
    strongly electromagnetc
  19. Intermolecular forces: 
    hydrogen bond
    • strongest of intermolecular forces
    • must contain NH or OH
  20. London dispersion forces are usually between __.
    nonpolar molecules
  21. Dipole-dipole interactions
    They cant __, but they have a __.
    • + end with - end
    • H bond
    • polar functional group attached
    • intermediate affinity; weaker than H bonds
  22. The less branching, the __
    higher the affinity for liquids
  23. Straight chains have __ and __
    higher SA and increased BP
  24. Intramolecular bonding
    within the molecule
  25. Intermolecular
    between molecules
  26. What do functional groups do?
    dictate properties (such as solubility), usually carbons bound to something other than acid or carbon multiple bonds
  27. Hydrocarbons: five types
    • alkanes: single bond
    • alkenes: flat: sp2; most abundant bulk chemicals; double bond
    • alkynes: c triple bond C; rare
    • arene: benzene ring; 6 membered ring; alt. single and double bonds
    • alkyl halide: a hydrogen of an alkane replaced by a halogen (primary is a C bearing halogen with only one C attached; secondary: C bearing halogen with two C attached; tertiary...)
  28. Alcoholds
    - __ of water
    - explain the numbering
    - if it has a benzene
    • organic derivatives of water
    • if the C bearing the OH has two other C attached, it is secondary
    • If the C bearing the OH has a benzene attached, it is a phenol, not an alcohol
  29. Ethers
    - what are they?
    - can be a "
    • water addalogs
    • replace both H on water with something else
    • can be in a ring
  30. R group means what?
    ffree radical
  31. Amines
    - what are they?
    - element?
    - compound?
    - explain categorizing
    - great what?
    • saturated funcitional groups
    • nitrogens
    • ammonia
    • - replace one H= primary
    • - replace two H= secondary
    • - replace three H= tertiary
    • great Lewis bases
  32. Aldehydes and Ketones
    - structure
    - in how many functional groups
    what makes it an aldehyde?
    • C=O
    • - ketones: have two carbons attached
    • - aldehydes: have one carbon attached
    • in 7 different functional groups
    • Ketones
    • the hydrogen at one end
  33. Sulfur Analogs
    - of ethanol
    • thiol 
    • CH3CH2SH
  34. Sulfur analog of ether
    • CH3CH2SCH2CH3
    • thioether
  35. Bonding in a carbonyl is __.
    sp2 sp2
  36. ester is what?
    • ether and ketone
    • R-CO2-R
  37. Carboxylic acid is what?
    • carbonyl and alcohol
    • CO2H
  38. Fats and Fatty acids
    - saturated
    • single bonds: sat
    • double bonds: unsat
    • cis double bonds: cis fat
    • trans double bonds: trans fat
  39. Amide
    explain numbering
    • carbonyl and amine
    • 2 Hydrogens: primary
    • 1 H: secondary
    • etc
  40. Nitrile
    C triple bonded N called cyano
Card Set
Orgo Ch 2 Notes Pt. 3