If the structure has sp3 geometry, but is bound to only one other atom, what is the angle?
no bond angle
In order to have a cis-trans, what?
the rest of the structure must be identical.
Why does CO2 have zero dipole, but SO2 has?
- because CO2 is a linear structure: they cancel out
- SO2 is bent: so they dont
When will something hydrogen bond with itself?
when it has the NH or OH
When will something hydrogen bond with water?
when it has the N or O
What does water solubility depend on?
the number of carbons and the number of hydrogen-bonding grouops in a molecule
A structure with one hydrogen-bonding group can carry __ to be ++
- three carbons
- to be miscible (completely soluble)
A structure with four carbons and only one hydrogen bonding group is __.
A structure with five or more carbons is?
slightly soluble "insoluble"
Four regions of electron density = __
- only __ shapes in orgo.
- four hybrid orbits
- saturated center
- has three sigma bonds and the remaining p orbital will be a pi bond
- positive with positive; negative with negative
- they have to parallel to each other adn in phase
- weaker and more exposed
Pi bond is __ to the plane of the molecule.
Every C-C bond only has __.
- compounds that don't rotate
- cofiguration around a double bond determines the compound
those that have different connectivities
London Dispersion Forces
- surface area
- affects what?
- lasting time?
- very weak forces
- greater surface area = higher mp
- greater surface area= increased chance at keeping them together (increased potential attraction)
- affects solubility and properties
- temporary dipoles
Least branched isomer has __
Most branched isomer has __.
In stereoisomers, bonding takes place in __.
Lone pairs are__
- strongest of intermolecular forces
- must contain NH or OH
London dispersion forces are usually between __.
They cant __, but they have a __.
- + end with - end
- H bond
- polar functional group attached
- intermediate affinity; weaker than H bonds
The less branching, the __
higher the affinity for liquids
Straight chains have __ and __
higher SA and increased BP
within the molecule
What do functional groups do?
dictate properties (such as solubility), usually carbons bound to something other than acid or carbon multiple bonds
Hydrocarbons: five types
- alkanes: single bond
- alkenes: flat: sp2; most abundant bulk chemicals; double bond
- alkynes: c triple bond C; rare
- arene: benzene ring; 6 membered ring; alt. single and double bonds
- alkyl halide: a hydrogen of an alkane replaced by a halogen (primary is a C bearing halogen with only one C attached; secondary: C bearing halogen with two C attached; tertiary...)
- __ of water
- explain the numbering
- if it has a benzene
- organic derivatives of water
- if the C bearing the OH has two other C attached, it is secondary
- If the C bearing the OH has a benzene attached, it is a phenol, not an alcohol
- what are they?
- can be a "
- water addalogs
- replace both H on water with something else
- can be in a ring
R group means what?
- what are they?
- explain categorizing
- great what?
- saturated funcitional groups
- - replace one H= primary
- - replace two H= secondary
- - replace three H= tertiary
- great Lewis bases
Aldehydes and Ketones
- in how many functional groups
what makes it an aldehyde?
- - ketones: have two carbons attached
- - aldehydes: have one carbon attached
- in 7 different functional groups
- the hydrogen at one end
- of ethanol
Bonding in a carbonyl is __.
Fats and Fatty acids
- single bonds: sat
- double bonds: unsat
- cis double bonds: cis fat
- trans double bonds: trans fat
- carbonyl and amine
- 2 Hydrogens: primary
- 1 H: secondary
C triple bonded N called cyano