Lab Quiz 1

  1. Ocular (eye piece)
    •  pair of lenses used to view a object through a microscope, 10x
  2. Objective
    • sample side (of the turret) lenses that magnify by 4x, 10x, 40x, or 100x
  3. Low power objective(s)
    4x, 10x
  4. High & dry objective
    40x (but also technically 4x, 10x)
  5. Oil Immersion Objective
  6. Parfocal
    the calibration of objectives so that when changing from one objective to another, the focus will not change by much and will only need fine  adjustments to maintain focus
  7. Coarse & Fine Adjustment
    • larger knob used for the initial, ‘rough’ focusing; the small knob used for fine sharp
    • focusing
  8. Substage Condenser
    the condenser distributes the light source light to create even illumination; the condenser may also be adjusted to increase or decrease side scatter to sharpen focused images
  9. Iris Diaphragm
    a camera-like diaphragm that can be used to adjust the amount of light that illuminates a sample
  10. Mechanical Stage
    holds samples steady and flat, and allows for fine movement of the slides in two dimensions
  11. Compound Light Microscope
    microscope that uses two or more lenses and visible light to magnify objects
  12. Brightfield microscope
    microscopy where the field is bright and the object(s) being observed are dark or opaque
  13. Darkfield microscope
    microscopy where the field is dark and the object that is being observed is light or clear. DFM is often used to enhance internal details.
  14. Phase Contrast Microscope
    bright field microscopy where the optical system provides extra scattered light to unstained objects, enhancing dimensionality and edges. One type is DIC.
  15. Fluorescent Microscope
    uses very bright light that is passed through high-pass or narrow-bandwidth excitation filters before illuminating the sample. The emission light is also filtered (usually high-pass) to eliminate the excitation range, allowing the viewer (or camera) to see only the locations were dye is present.
  16. Staphene
    green liquid disinfectant; can use to cover surfaces involving live organisms and disinfect lab surfaces
  17. Pathogen
    infectious organisms
  18. Wet mount slide
    microscope slide of liquid specimen covered with cover glass
  19. Yeast
    unicellular fungi with little or no mycelium that reproduces asexually, mainly by budding; involved in alcoholic fermentation and used to make alcoholic beverages (like beer and wine) and leavened bread
  20. Budding
    characteristic method of asexual reproduction among yeasts
  21. Mold
    multicellular masses of filamentous fungal growth
  22. Hyphae
    individual filaments, generally comprised of more than one cell
  23. Mycelium
    the entire mass of intermeshed hyphae
  24. Colony
    sometimes circular body of fungal growth visible to the unaided eye
  25. Fungal  spore
    the asexual reproductive body of a fungus
  26. Septa
    hyphal cross walls that divide filaments into separate cells
  27. Petri plate (dish)
    special covered dish used to culture cells
  28. Medium
    liquid nutrient designed to support the growth of microorganisms, such as nutrient broths or agar plates (when thickened with agar agar)
  29. Agar
    a gelatinous material derived from algae specifically used to culture bacterial and other cells
  30. Smear
    film of microbial cells on a microscope slide
  31. Heat fixing
    air or heat dried smear; used to affix smear and slide can be viewed without cover glass
  32. Simple staining
    staining cells with a single dye
  33. Bacilli
    rod-shaped bacteria
  34. Endospore
    an extremely heat- and chemical-resistant, dormant, thick-walled spore that develops within bacteria; survival forms for the cells
  35. Name the medium upon which the mold was cultured
    Sabouraud agar
  36. Name the stain routinely employed on fungal specimens
    Lactophenol cotton blue
  37. State the scientific name of the yeast studied in the laboratory
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  38. Name the bacterium employed in the smear and simple staining exercises
    Bacillus megaterium
  39. Differential staining
    a stain that allows us to distinguish between different types of cells by way of differential chromophore binding.
  40. Primary stain
    the best or brightest of two or more stains in a differential staining procedure (crystal violet in Gram staining).
  41. Counterstain
    the secondary stain (safranin in Gram staining),often differential or used to highlight additional features of the cells being examined
  42. Mordant
    a chemical treatment that intensifies the bond between a dye and the cell.
  43. Decolorizer
    a chemical treatment that removes unbound stain from cells
  44. Morphology
    the study of shapes; in this case, the consistent details of the shape and clustering of bacteria.
  45. Acid-fast
    bacterial cells that retain the stain carbofuchsin even after decolorization with acid-alcohol.
  46. Pleomorphic
    variation in size and shape in a population of a single organism
  47. Cocci
    spherical-shaped cells
  48. Capsule
    a nonliving mucilaginous sheath found external to the cell wall of some, but not all, bacteria.
  49. Name the critical step in the Gram staining procedure
    Decolorizing with acetone alcohol
  50. Sporulate
    produce spores
  51. Negative staining
    a method of darkening the background around the cells with dye in order to better observe  their structure; not true staining; cells appear as bright spots in a darkened field of view, similar to the appearance of dark field microscopy.
  52. Motility
    moving or having the power to move spontaneously; utilizes energy.
  53. Brownian motion
    movement as a result of molecules colliding with the cells; this is simple vibration, not motility.
Card Set
Lab Quiz 1
Lab one quiz