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Which of the 4 major tissues does blood fall under?
What turns erythrocytes red?
Plasma is composed of?
Serum and fibrinogen
How do we find serum out of the plasma
Allow the plasma to clot and then collect the leftover protein free liquid
Leukocytes serve what function?
Platelets are called what in animals otyher than mammals?
Thrombocytes and are full cells
What is the function of platelets?
What do granulocytes have that agranulocytes don't?
So name the colour of the granules for neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils
- Neutro = no colour they don't take up stain
- Eosino = pink
- Baso = blue
What can your PCV or hematocrit tell you?
A lot based on how much plasma there is, no plasma dehydrate, excess plasma probably bleeding
Roughly how much of the PCV does the plasma and buffy coat represent in a healthy animal
- Plasma = 50%
- Buffy coat = 1%
What white blood cell makes up the most of the buffy coat? The rarest?
- Neutrohpils approximately 60-70%
How does llama erythrocytes differ from tohers?
Elliptical rather than circular
How does chicken erythrocytes differ?
Are erythrocytes long term cells?
No essentially disposable in a few months
Are there any organells in a red blood cell?
Why do red blood cells often have a concave shape?
Increases SA for oxygen carrying
What is different about pig RBC
Crenated or wrinkly
Too much variation in an animals red blood cells could represent
What is poikocytosis?
When a cell gets kind of pokey due to changes in osmolarity, it is ok in small %
What is meant when horses have rouleaux formation in there RBC?
There RBC form chains and clump together , this is normal
Is it normal to find immature RBC?
In most animals 1-2% not a big deal, in horses and cattle more of a concern
What is a common RBC abnormality
Sickle cell anemia
Describe a Heinz abnormality
Small projection off of the red blood cell like a zit
Out of our species who has the longest living RBC, shortest?
neutrophils use their granules for what?
Do neutrohpils have a long liespan?
one of the shortest, could be only 12 hours
Are neutrophils only granulocytic?
No also phagocytic
Describe the evolution of the neutrophil nucleus
Starts round like everyone else get kidney shaped, band cell, hten segmented and looks more compact and tightend
Do neutrophils have lots of mitochondria? Why?
No they use mostly anerobic glycolysis cause bacteria often hang out in anerobic places and need to be able to get there
Puss is essentially
Dead neutrophils and dead bacteria
What cell is essentially the 1st line of defense
Roughly how much O2 can a RBC bind?
What function do eosinophils serve?
Are eosinphils phagocytic
- not particularly
- Parasites are too big to engluf
While shape and granule size in eosinophils differs among species what are some common characteristics
- Pink granules
- Multi lobed nuclei
- Larger than RBC
What do we often see as a few distinguishing factor for basophils?
- Blue often
- Super dense amount of granules, often cant see the nucleus so dense
What do basophils play a role in?
- They are quite rare
In certain species where neutrophils do take up stain, I.E. rabbits, guinea pigs, birds etc we refer to them as what?
In a neutrophil you often see a segmented nucleus but what distinguishes it from basophils an eosinophils
How do you distinguish lymphocytes?
Very little cytoplasm
How do you distinguish a monocyte?
Largest cell out there
How can you find platelets?
Tiny little things almost little like debris scattered around
Do monocytes have much for granules
What shape is a monocyte nucleus in circulation?
WHat does a monocyte become when it migrates to tissues?
How do macrophages work to defend?
- Slower than neutrophil
- More phagocytic
lymphocytes do what?
Can you distinguish between T and B cell lymphocytes? What about size?
- No both will have large and small cells
What would a lymphoblast be?
An immature lymphocyte
Platelets are produced where by what? How are they produced?
- Bone marrow
- They break off of the mega cell
On the platelet there are all different kinds of what on the surface?
Channels and organelles
Where do stem cells begin to work during fetal development?
Most of your blood cells for the 1st trimester are made in the yolk sac
Where are most of your blood cells made for the 2nd and 3rd trimester of embryonic development?
- 2nd - liver and spleen
- 3rd - bone marrow
looking at a cross section of a bone where during life do you find bone marrow?
In the little air holes or pockets
When we look at bone marrow the little cells are? And the big cells are?
- Hemopoeitic cells
- adipose tissue
Distinguish between yellow bone marrow and red bone marrow
Yellow is being used as an adipose storage and red is being used to form blood cells
Where on the long bone would we expect to find most of the red bone marrow?
On the extremities
Once bone marrow has become yellow is it stuck like that forever?
Nope it can transition back quite easily
Do we see any vasculature or anything in the bone marrow?
Yes otherwise how would the RBC get out? We call them sinuses
The large cells we see in bone marrow that are not adipose cells are what? They form what?
What is an advential cell?
the gate keeper, allows mature cells to exit the marrow into the sinuses
Differentiate between a pluripotent stem cell, multipotent and unipotent stem cell
- Pluri = potential to make all kinds of blood cells
- Multi = potential to make a few kinds of blood cells
- Uni = potential to make a single type of blood cell
Describe how stem cells divide?
When a stem cell divides 1 daughter is kept a stem cell to keep the population up however one becomes a differentiated cell
In embryonic development how many types of stem cells are there?
What does the terminology meta.....cyte mean?
Going to be a cyte soon
Describe orthochromatic and polychromatic
- Ortho is organe
- Poly is inbetween orange and blue
erythrocytes are made in the bone marrow in what kind of formation
Islands, they are made in islands of like cells
Roughly how long I s erythropeiesis
7 days roughly
What are the 6 general trends and events we see in the maturation of an erythrocyte
- Decreasing RNA
- Loss of organelles
- Increasing hemoglobin
- Decreasing size & euchromatin of nucleus
- Loss of nucleoli
- Finally loss of nucleus
Why does an erythrocyte need RNA and ribosomes in the developemental stages?
Cause it needs to make all the proteins such as hemoglobin for its life
Where does the prorubricyte fit in in terms of erythrocytic lineage?
Prior to the rubriblast, so literally the earliest form
What is the difference between an erythrocyte and a reticulocyte
Reticulocyte needs to go to the spleen to mature before becoming an erythrocyte
Does the cell tend to get bigger or smaller as it matures? (erythrocyte)
Smaller as well as the nucleus gets smaller
What eventually happens in the development of the erythrocyte to the nucleus?
It gets ejected out
Can the developing red blood cell still divide once condesning?
No once it hits a certain point it no longer works
What hormone is made by the kidney to stimulate early erythrocyte production
What does a higher number of reticulocytes in circulation indicate?
More strain on the body, that means the body is pushing them out faster and so ends up with them a tad more immature
Where in the body is the largest population of granulocytes?
Do granulocytes stay in the blood for very long?
Nope quickly out
Do monocytes retain their nucleus during development? are they relatively young or old when they enter the circulation? What do they turn into eventually?
- relatively young
What makes monocytes so hard to find in the bone marrow?
They are short lived in the marrow (1-2 days) and they are rare in the first place
Do monocytes actively continue differentiating in the blood?
How much bigger is a megakaryocyte than a normal cell?
Is a megakaryocyte a single nucleid cell?
No its a polyploidy cell it simply grows an divides genetic material but not its actual cell
What do megakaryocytes divide into
platelets bud off from them
2 ways that marrow can be obtained?
What kind fo myeloid:erythroid ratio do we want roughly?
What is a good way to evaluate bone marrow?
Myeloid to erythroid ratio
Explain what is different about erythropoiesis in birds?
Occurs in the venous sinuses of the bone starts immature stuck on the wall, moves inward towards the middle and then is released upon maturity
Do we see megakaryocytes in birds?
No cause they have single celled platelets not chips off the giat cell
During the formation of erythrocytes in birds do we see the same amount of condensation fo the chromatin? Do we see any at all? do we see a excreted nucleus like in other cells?
Where does granulopoiesis in birds occur?
Outside the venous sinsuses in the standard marrow
What is a neutrophil in a bird called?
if your erythroid to myloid ratio is not close to 1:1 what could this mean? Describe this ratio as an analytical tool
- Could mean infection cause raised immune cells
- Essentially the myloid line is all derived from the myloid stem cell the erythroid is a line in the myloid line. Most of the blood should be erythrocytes therefore making the ration near 1:1 if otherwise there could be issues
What are the 2 main lines from the pluripotent stem cell? What is under the lymphoid line?
- Myloid line and lymphoid line
- lymphoblasts which includes B and T lymphoblasts
What are the 3 cell types un the myloid line?
- Thrombocytes (including megakarycoytes)
What 4 cells can come from the progenitor cell of the leukocytes
What cell is the earliest cell for the granulocytes of the leukocytes
- (eosino, baso and neutro)
- All originate from the myoloblast
The monocyte of the leukocyte line originates from what cell after the progenitor cell?
Is a myloid stem cell considered a pluripotent or a multipotent stem cell?
Is a progenitor cell considered a multipotent cell or a unipotent cell?
Depends wher eit is but I would say a uni potent in most cases
Go through the entire erythrocyte lineage by name (7)
- Polychromatophilic rubricyte
At what stage during the erythrocytic lineage does the cell lose its nucleus
What does a polychromatic rubricyte look like?
Red or orange cytoplasm and purplish blueish nucleus
What is the general trend in names of the Eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils starting from progenitor cells
- basophil example just put others where you see baso)
- Baso myetocyte
- Baso metamyetocyte
Describe the cell lineage of a monocyte in words
Describe how you can tell once a neutrophil has hit metamyelocyte stage? Neutrophil stage? myelocyte?
- Kidney shaped
- Contacted band shaped nucleus
- Specific granules
Describe thrombopoiesis in terms of words (5 steps) (in mammals)
How does the megakaryocyte gain access to the blood vessels?
Long tentacles intot he blood vessel