1. Animalia
    • No cell walls
    • No large central vacuole
    • Usually no chloroplasts
    • Have centrioles to aid in spindle formation
    • Store excess sugars as glycogen
  2. Monophyletic
    Every group arose from same common ancestor
  3. Polyphyletic
    Refers to a group of organism composed of members that do not share a unique common ancestor
  4. Paraphyletic
    Refers to a portion of a group that contains members having the same common ancestor but that does not include every descendant species o that common ancestor
  5. Porifera
    • Sponges
    • Lack true tissues
    • Cells are not specialized into particular tissues
    • Lack organs
  6. How animal phyla are divided general
    mostly divide by differences in external symmetry and internal body cavities
  7. How animal phyla are divided
    • Initially by external symmetry (radially or bilaterally)
    • (after cells become bilateral, they also go to 3 cell layers)
    • Body Cavity
    • Coelomates
  8. Radial symmetry
    • Have bodies stretching out in equal directions from a central point
    • Round organism
  9. Bilateral Symmetry
    • Organized along one vertical or horizontal axis and tend to be long and thin
    • All Vertebrate
  10. Coelom
    Body cavity in addition to digestive tract, usually fluid filled cushion space
  11. Dorsal
    • Back
    • Stomach
    • Head 
    • Tail
  12. Acoelomate
    No body cavity between gut and outer wall
  13. Psuedoelomate
    Body cavity that is lined by muscles and blood vessels on my on the outside surface of cavity
  14. Coelomate
    Body cavity lined by muscle tissue and blood vesles both on outer surface and inner one, surrounding the entire digestive tract
  15. Porifera
    • Sponges
    • Two cell layers
    • Silicon and calcium skeletons
    • No symetry
  16. Cnidaria
    • Jelly, corals, and hydra
    • Two cell layers
    • Bag like with tentacles
    • Radically symmetric
    • Stinging cells, neumatocycts
  17. Platyhelminthes
    • Flatworms, tapeworms
    • Many parasitic
    • Lack Skeletal, circulatory, and respiratory
    • Dorsal ventral nerves
    • Acoelomate
    • Bilateral symmetry
  18. Aschminthes
    • Roundworms, Rotifers
    • Body sender and elongated
    • Posses internal organs
    • Many parascitic
    • Pseudocoelomate
    • Bilateral
  19. Annelida
    • Earthworms and Leaches
    • Body Internally/externally segmented
    • Many internal organs repeated throughout
    • coelomate and bilateral symmetric
  20. Mollusca
    • Clams oysters and snails
    • Mainly hard shelled
    • All organ systems present
    • No segment
    • Coelomate
    • Bilateral Symmetry
  21. Arthopoda
    • Insects and crabs
    • Exokeleton
    • segmentation
    • Ventral nerve chord
    • Coelomate
    • Bilateral Symmetry
  22. Echinodermata
    • Sea Stars Urchines
    • Coelomate
    • Deuterstome
    • Adults radial symmetry, Larvea Bilateral
    • Water vascular systems
    • Tube feet for feeding and movement
  23. Chordata
    • Sea Squints and all vertebrates
    • Notochord often becomes vertebral column
    • Paired gill slits
    • Dorsal nerve chord
    • Coelomate 
    • Bilateral symmetry
  24. Determinate Clevage
    • Arthopods, mollusks, annelids 
    • Protostomes
  25. Deuterstomes
    • Echinoderms and Chordatas
    • Embryonic cells retain ability to split off and develop into new complete embryos long into development
  26. Arthopods key qualities
    • Segmentation
    • Exoskeltons
    • Molting
    • Open Circulatory system
  27. Chorodata Key qualities
    • Dorsal Hollow nerve chord
    • Notochord
    • Muscular tail
    • Gill slits
  28. Notochord
    • All chordata have longitudinal bending rod or tissue b/w gut and nerve cord, for support, can turn into bony vetebra
    • From mesodermal cells
  29. Dorsal Hollow nerve cord
    • Develops from pinching up of dorsal ectoderm, neutral tube, during embryo growth
    • Develops CNS
Card Set
Biology GRE