1. Culture is
    all humans learn to do, use, produce, know, and believe
  2. culture shock
    the difficulty people have adjusting to a different culture
  3. ethnocentrism
    when people make judgments about different cultures in comparison to their own
  4. cultural relativism
    cultural groups must be studied on their own before they can be compared
  5. Two components of culture
    • Material: products of technology
    • Nonmaterial: products of the mind
  6. Norms
    rules of behavior that are agreed upon and shared within a culture
  7. Morés
    strongly held norms that hold great consequence if broken
  8. Folkways
    Norms that have a wide range of interpretation given the situation
  9. ideal norms
    expectations of people under perfect circumstances
  10. Real norms
    norms with qualifications and allowances per individual
  11. values
    culture's general orientation towards life
  12. Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    language determines a person's perception of reality
  13. What are the two mechanisms for change?
    • innovation
    • diffusion
  14. innovation
    any new practice or tool widely accepted
  15. diffusion
    movement of cultural traits from one culture to another
  16. reformulation
    a trait is modified in some way that it fits in its new context
  17. cultural lag
    new patterns emerge, even if they are in conflict with traditional values
  18. subculture
    the distinctive lifestyles, values, norms, and beliefs of certain segments of the population within a society
  19. what are the five types of subcultures?
    • ethnic
    • occupational
    • religious
    • social class
    • deviant
  20. cultural universals
    models or patterns for social behaviors that have developed in all cultures to resolve common problems
  21. what are some cultural universals?
    • division of labor
    • marriage
    • family
    • rites of passage
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