Chapter 31: Fungi

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  1. Are fungi more closely related to plants of animals?
  2. The cell walls of fungi contains ____, which is the same material found in the exoskeletons of arthropods.
  3. Chitin is a substance found in both fungi and ____.
  4. What organisms are some of the largest in the world?
    Some fungal organisms
  5. The body of a fungus is a mass of connected hyphae called the ____.
  6. Fungi are: photosynthetic/heterotrophic
  7. Fungi are saprobic, this means...?
    They excrete enzymes for external digestion and then absorb the digested products
  8. True or false: Fungal cells may have more than one nucleus
  9. Define: monokaryotic
    Hypha with one nucleus
  10. dikaryotic
    hypha with two nucli
  11. Name the two types of dikaryotic hypha
    • heterokaryotic
    • homokaryotic
  12. heterokaryotic:
    nuclei from two genetically distinct individuals
  13. homokaryotic
    nuclei from genetically similar individuals
  14. Define coenocytic
    Hypha made up of a continuous cytoplasmic mass with hundreds or thousands of nuclei
  15. Which of the following types of hypha contains the most nucli: monokaryotic, coenocytic, dikaryotic
  16. In fungus, what is the relevant unit of reproduction?
    The nucleus, NOT the cell
  17. In fungi, mitosis is not followed by ___?
  18. True or False: Fungi can reproduce asexually and sexually
  19. Explain fungal sexual reproduction
    involves fusion of hyphae from two compatible mating type or hyphae from same fungus
  20. How is sexual compatibility determined in fungi?
    by pheromones released by hyphae
  21. Define plasmogamy
    union of the cytoplasms of two parent mycelia
  22. karyogamy
    • fusion of haploid nuclei from the parent mycelia
    • produce diploid nucleus
  23. Spores can form _________ and are most often dispersed by ____.
    • asexually of sexually
    • by the wind
  24. Yeasts can reproduce asexually by what process?
  25. Chytridiomycota and relatives have what characteristic?
    Flagellates zoospores
  26. Chytrids are ____, flagellated fungi
  27. The flagellated zoospore is a distinctive characteristic of this group
    Chytridiomycota & relatives
  28. What type of fungi had been implicated in the die-off of amphibians?
  29. True or false: Chytrids can also be plant pathogens and parasites of other fungi, protists, and animals
  30. What are Zygomycota?
    Fungi that produce zygotes
  31. Name a specific zygomycota
    Rhizopus: bread mold found growing on moist bread or fruit
  32. This zygomycete feeds on simple sugars
  33. Zygomycota is named for the characteristic ____ ____ they produce
    zygote nuclei
  34. Explain sexual reproduction of zygomycota
    • Plasmogamy produces a sturdy structure called a zygosporeangium
    • karyogamy entails fusion of haploid nuclei resulting in diploid zygote nuclei
  35. Explain asexual reproduction for zygomycota
    • The more common process
    • Sporangia release thin-walled haploid spores.
    • These spores may be dispersed by the wind
  36. Zygosporangium are produced by _____, in Zygomycota.
    sexual reproduction--plasmogamy
  37. What is the more common way for zygomycota to reproduce?
  38. What are glomeromycota?
    Asexual plant symbionts
  39. True or false: Glomeromycetes can survive without a host plant
    False. They cannot
  40. What mineral is provided by fungi through its mutualistic relationship to plants? And what do plants provide in return?
    • Fungi provide phosphorus
    • Plants provide carbohydrates
  41. This type of fungi grows withing the root cells of most trees and herbaceous plants
    Glomeromycete hyphae
  42. The glomeromycete hyphae that grows withing the root cells of most trees is called:
    arbuscular mycorrhizae
  43. Ascomycota are known as:
    The Sac (Ascus) Fugi
  44. Ascomycetes make up about __% of known fungi.
  45. Give some examples of Ascomycetes fungi
    bread yeasts, common molds, cup fungi, and truffles are examples of this fungi
  46. Plant pathogens that cause chestnut blight and dutch elm disease are classified as what type of fungi?
  47. Genus Penicillium is found in phylum:
  48. For Ascomycetes, sexual reproduction occurs within the _____.
  49. Is the ascus of ascomycetes is ____. 
  50. Asexual reproduction in ascomycetes occurs within _____.
    conidiophores (to bear conidia)
  51. True or false: Some ascomycetes have yeast morphology
    True; yeasts normally reproduce by cell fission or budding
  52. The Sac Fungi:
  53. The Club Fungi
  54. Asexual Plant Symbionts
  55. What is the visible reproductive structure of basidiomycota?
  56. Basidiomycetes sexually reproduce within what structure?
  57. Mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs, shelf fungi, are all examples of this type of fungi.
  58. A tremendous amount of spores are produced on the ____, located on the undersurface of mushroom caps.
  59. Fungi are capable of breaking down ____ and ___.
    • Cellulose
    • Lignin
  60. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus are released by fungi when they break down which two elements?
    • cellulose
    • ligin
  61. What are the two types of fungi symbioses?
    • Obligate symbiosis
    • Facultative symbiosis
  62. Obligate symbiosis means?
    Symbiosis is essential to survival
  63. Facultative symbiosis means?
    fungus can survive with or without a host
  64. What is the difference between a pathogen and a parasite?
    Pathogens cause disease, but parasites do not except in extreme cases.
  65. Where do endophytes live?
    INSIDE plants, and may protect plants from parasites
  66. Give an example of symbiosis between two different kingdoms
  67. Lichens are composed of a _____ along with a _____
    • ascomycete
    • cyanobacteria, green algae, or both
  68. Fungi can't normally grown without their photosynthetic partners, and fungi protect their partners from ____ and ___.
    Strong light and desiccation
  69. True or False: Lichens cannot live in very harsh habitats.
    False. They can.
  70. ____ are usually the first organism to colonize and area
  71. What are the characteristics of lichens?
    • Usually the first to colonize an area
    • break down rocks and hep prepare for the invasion of other organisms
    • produce very bright pigments (some used for dyes)
    • used to indicate air quality in an area (they absorb substances dissolved in rain and dew)
    • Few lichens are found in or near cities
  72. As pollution decreases, _____ population increases.
  73. This fungi is associated with roots of plants. (Name means "fungus foot")
  74. Describe the characteristics of Mycorrhizae
    • fungal hyphae increase amount of contact with soil and increase surface area for absorption
    • haustoria= specialized hyphae used to extract nutrients from or exchange nutrients with their plant hosts
    • mycorrhizae: aid in direct transfer of phosphorus, zinc, copper, and other minerals from soil into plant roots.
  75. Define haustoria and which type of fungi has these...
    specialized hyphae used to extract nutrients from or exchange nutrients with their plant hosts
  76. What are the two types of mycorrhizae?
    • arbuscular mycorrhiza = grow withing the outer cells of the plant root
    • entomycorrhizae = surround root cells but do not penetrate them
  77. Where is neocallimastigomycete often found?
    Found in the guts of ruminant animals (animals that chew their cud).
  78. Give an example of fungi that forms mutual symbioses with animals
    Leaf-cutter ants have domesticated a specific fungus that they maintain in an underground garden. Ants provide leaves for the fungi to eat. Ant eat the fungi.
  79. Name four fungal parasites and pathogens
    • Fusarium
    • Aflatoxins
    • Corn Smut
    • Ergot
  80. Why are fungal infections difficult to treat in humans and other animals?
    Because there are many similarities between the two kingdoms
  81. Fungal infestation: Fusarium
    • grows on spoiled food
    • produces vomitoxin that can cause brain damage in humans and animals
    • found in SW United States
  82. Fungal inferstation: Aflatoxins
    • Very carcinogenic
    • Produced by Aspergillus flavus strains growing on corn, peanuts, cotton seed
    • Can damage kidneys and nervous system of animals and humans
    • considered a possible bioterrorism agent
  83. Fungal infestation: Corn Smut
    damages corn but NOT harmful to animals that consume it
  84. Fungal infestation: Ergot
    • associated with rye and other grains
    • an alkaloid toxin is produced and if eaten, can cause hallucinations, gangrene, nervous spasms and nervous sensations
    • Implicated in Salem witch trials
    • Lysergic acid isolated from ergot is the raw material used in LSD.
  85. Which fungal infestation is found in the SW United States and produces vomitoxin?
    A. aflatoxins
    B. corn smut
    C. fusarium
    D. ergot
    C. fusarium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. Which fungal infestation is considered a possible bioterrorism agent?
    A. corn smut
    B. ergot
    C. aflatoxins
    D. fusarium
    C. aflatoxins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. What fungal infestation  produced by Aspergillus flavus and is also highly carcinogenic?
    A. aflatoxins
    B. fusarium
    C. ergot
    D. corn smut
    A. aflatoxins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. What fungal infestation damages corn but is not harmful to animals that digest it?
    A. fusarium
    B. ergot
    C. aflatoxins
    D. corn smut
    D. corn smut
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. What fungal infestation was implicated in the salem witch trials?
    a. fusarium
    d. aflatoxins
    c. corn smut
    d. ergot
    d. ergot
  90. What fungal infestation is lysergic acid isolated from to make LSD?
    A. corn smut
    B. aflatoxins
    C. ergot
    D. fusarium
    C. ergot
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. Give at least 5 examples of fungal diseases
    • ringworm
    • athlete's foot
    • nail fungus
    • thrush
    • oral or vaginal infections caused by Candida
    • pneumocystis jiroveci invaded lungs
    • mold allergies
    • stachybotris causes "sick" buildings
    • chytridiomycosis affects amphibians
  92. Name the fungal disease that causes "sick" buildings...
  93. What fungal disease affects amphibians?
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Chapter 31: Fungi
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