1. Sociological imagination
    examining relationship between individual experiences and forces in the larger society that shape our actions, by C. Wright Milles
  2. empiricism
    generalizations are only valid if they rely on evidence that can be observed directly or verified through the senses
  3. Three Main Forces of Sociology
    • How do social groups function?
    • Why do individuals act a certain way?
    • How does society exist?
  4. Personalized v. Sociological approaches
    • Personalized: compare to your environment
    • Sociological: actually research statistic evidence
  5. Sociology emerged because...
    it was stimulated by industrial revolution and American and French revolutions
  6. Comte 1798-1857
    coined the term "sociology", created idea of social science
  7. Martineau 1802-1876
    published Theory and Practice of Sociology, started social activism
  8. Spencer 1820-1903
    proposed social equality exists, social Darwinism
  9. Marx 1818-1883
    • father of conflict theory (conflict between power)
    • opposite of Weber
  10. Durkheim 1858-1917
    • father of sociology (first true sociological study)
    • focused on functions that hold society together
  11. Weber 1864-1920
    • how we attach meaning to something
    • opposite of Marx
  12. Addams 1860-1935
    • Was an activist
    • Opened Hull House
  13. Du Bois 1868-1963
    argued for acceptance of African Americans
  14. Parsons 1902-1979
    expanded on Durkeim
  15. Merton ~ 1949
    Two different social functions
  16. What are the two different social functions?
    • manifest functions - intended/recognized consequences of social function
    • latent functions - unintended consequences of social functions
  17. What are social functions?
    those processes that contribute to the maintenance of society
  18. Paradigms
    models or framework for questions that generate and guide research
  19. What are the three classical sociology theories?
    • Functionalist
    • Conflict
    • Symbolic Interactionist
  20. Functionalist Theory
    • started by Durkheim
    • society viewed as organism with parts that work together in harmony
    • always fights for equilibrium
  21. Conflict Theory
    • based off Marx
    • constant struggle to obtain maximum benefit
    • focuses of conflict: wealth, power, prestige
  22. Symbolic Interactionist Theory
    • influenced by Weber
    • reactions are based off of other reactions
    • interprets meaning of signs, symbols, gestures
  23. interactionist perspective
    how individuals interpret the social world in which they participate
  24. middle-range theories
    theories concerned with explaining specific issues or aspects of society rather than broad understanding
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