centralized control center that contains DNA to synthesize essential proteins
Thin membrane that separates the intracellular contents and extracellular environment
Three components of the cell membrane are?
Proteins, Lipids, and CHO
What is the job of the cell membrane
-4 main things
Regulates the environment in regards to ions, water, nutrients, waste and provides
colloidal solution inside a cell that surrounds the nucleus, where all the work takes place, utilized by various organelles
o Endoplasmic Reticulum-
o Golgi complex-
o Lysosomes and peroxisomes-
o Ribsomes- site of protein synthesis
o Endoplasmic Reticulum- metabolic functions
o Golgi complex- modifies substances and
packages in vesicles
o Lysosomes and peroxisomes- hydrolytic,
phagocytotic or transports materials to outside cell
o Mitochondria-power plant that produces power,
has its own mitochondrial DNA and controls apoptosis
Describe the composition and structure of the lipid bilayer (of cell membrane).
Lipid Bilayer- a semi permeable layer composed of phospholipids- hydrophilic head (water loving) and
hydrophobic tail (water/fluid fearing)
-Controls what enters and exits
What is the role of the glycocalyx?
Glycocalyx- participates with cell to cell adhesion “fuzzy coat" for recognition and support.
The glycocalyx is a type of identifier that the body uses to distinguish between its own healthy cells and transplanted tissues, diseased cells, or invading organisms. Included in the glycocalyx are cell-adhesion molecules that enable cells to adhere to each other and guide the movement of cells during embryonic development.
The 2 membrane proteins (in the cell membrane) are? Describe there functions
Integral: Spans the entire membrane bc they have a hydrophilic and hydrophobic region. Alpha helix structure
Peripheral: Bound to integral protein or lipid bilayer (outer surface) or lipid linked. Does not go through lipid bilayer.
Compare the structure and function of tight
junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions
Tight Junctions- two plasma membranes (fused
together or sealed) forming a impenetrable barrier preventing water and solutes
Adhering junctions- belt like, prevent cell separation,anchors microfilaments
Desmosomes- spot like adhesion molecules that
hold together by thick protein filaments- seen in areas of mechanical distress. Extend through cells.
Gap junctions- allow for rapid communication-
connected by connexon channels and decrease resistance
Where are Gap junctions, desmosomes, and tight junctions found? Give a location.
Tight junctions: Digestive tract
Gap junctions: excitable tissue like the heart
negative and positive feedback maintain body
Positive feedback- the response of effectors increases stimulus
-Body is moved away
from homeostasis (lose normal range)
-Used to speed up
Ex: childbirth (fetus pushes on the cervix which releases oxytocin which causes the uterus to contract and push harder on the cervix = more hormone release until birth), blood clotting, urinary bladder
Negative feedback-presence of effectors negates stimulus
Body brought back into homeostasis (normal range)
i.e: body temp drops, muscles start to contract, produce heat, brings body temp back up
Define the terms electrolyte, ion, and non-electrolytes
Electrolyte- substances that dissociate into solution to form charged particles or ions
Ions- charged particles (either positive or negative)
Non-Electrolytes- don’t dissolves in to ions such and glucose and urea
Lipid soluble substances pass directly through
the membrane, where as most ions (Na+ and K+) need
ICF & ECF: what concentration is in each?
within all the cells in the body
Larger of the two compartments- 2/3 of the body
water (40% body weight)
Contains almost no Ca2+, large
amounts of K+
ECF- fluids outside of the cells, including in the interstitial (tissue) spaces (3/4 of
ECF-14% body weight) and blood vessels (1/4 of ECF- 5% body weight)
Contains large amounts of Na+ and
Cl-, small quantities of K+
Active vs passive transport
Passive transport- transport through a plasma
membrane that requires no ATP. Transportation dependent on passive gradients
Active transport:transport through a plasma membrane requiring energy and ATP
describe the 4 types of diffusion/passive transport
Diffusion-electrolytes move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Rate of movement depends on number of particles and the velocity of their movement, the number of openings in the cell
Simple Diffusion:Occurs through membrane openings or intermolecular spaces
-Rate directly proportional to concentration
-Lipid soluble compounds (alcoholos, fatty acids,
-Dissolved gasses (oxygen and carbon dioxide)
Facilitated Diffusion (carrier mediated transport): Use of membrane protein channels- carrier
-Water soluble compounds, ions: Glucose and amino
- Rate of
diffusion approaches maximum and levels off
Channel characteristics- dependent of
characteristic of channel (Na+- neg charged = selectively
permeable), can be opened of closed by gates (dependent on electrical or
Carrier proteins- transport molecules too large
to fit- molecule binds to receptor site, protein changes shape, molecules pass
through (receptor site is specific to certain molecules)
Osmosis: Diffusion of water across the cell membrane
Movement is dependent on the concentration of
nondiffusible particles on either side- side of less particles and more water
to side with more particles and less water
---Movement until particles on each side equally
Filtration- process by which fluid is forced
through membrane due to differences in pressure,(ex.- plasma across renal glomerulus)
isotonic vs hypotonic vs hypertonic
Isotonic- equal amounts of dilution of particles
Hypotonic- lower concentration of particles outside the cell- water rushes in (swell)
Hypertonic- higher concentration of particles outside the cell- water rushes out (shrinking)
What are the 3 primary regulatory hormones?
1. antidiuretic hormone
3. Natriuretic peptides (to excrete Na+)
What are the main ions that are used in active transportation
Na+, K+, Ca2+,
What kind of compounds go through simple diffusion? facilitated diffusion?
membrane-surrounded vesicles for movement into the cytoplasm
Phagocytosis- engulf large objects in phagosomes
After engulfed in a phagosome, moves into
cytoplasm fuses with lysosome and degraded by lysosomal enzymes
Exocytosis- moves substances from interior of
cell into extracellular space
Substance to be released is enclosed in a
Vesicle fuses to membrane and ruptures, spilling contents out of cell
Important in removing cellular debris and
The two main types of ion channels are?
Leakage (passive)- open even in unstimulated
Gated (active)- open and close to stimuli, at
resting potential- most are closed
Define the three types (Chemical, Voltage, Mechanical) of gated channels
give examples where each are found
Voltage-gated- electrically operated channels,
open when membrane potential changes
Activation gates (open), inactive gates (closes)
Found in neural axons, skeletal muscle
sarcolemma, cardiac muscle
Ligand-gated- chemically operated channels,
respond to specific receptor-bound ligands, ex. Acetylcholine
Found in neuron cell body and dendrites
Mechanically gated- open and close in response
to mechanical stimuli-
Found in sensory receptors: vibrations, tissue stretching, pressure
Why would there be a delay in some action potentials?
Delay in repolarization after depolarization
this allows the heart muscle to contract
Describe the 6 functions of the skin
Regulate body temp: most heat is produced by deep organs, then transferred
to the skin to be released to the surrounding environment; the rate at which heat is dissipated from the body is controlled by constriction or dilation of the arterioles that supply blood to the skin and through evaporation of moisture and sweat from the skin surface
Protection: microorganisms find it
almost impossible to penetrate the skin
from the outside; water loss is limited from the inside; skin surface
is covered with a thick lipid film contains bactericidal fatty acids that protect against the entry of harmful microorganisms
Reception of stimuli: skin is richly innervated
with pain, temp, and touch receptors; relay’s numerous qualities of touch, such as pressure,
sharpness, dullness, and pleasure to the CNS for localization and fine discrimination.
Excretion: skin excretes sweat to cool
the body and release heat
Synthesis of Vit D: 7-dehydrocholesterol, a
subastance normally found in epidermal cells, is converted to cholecalciferol (inactive form of VitD)by UV rays from the sun
Coordinates immune response to pathogens:Langerhans cells are antigen-presenting cells of the skin and protect against harmful pathogens as well as playing a rold in the development of allergic skin conditions
List and describe the four specialized cells in the epidermis and their functions.
Keratinocytes:produces keratin, most abundant cell (95% of epidermis)
Langerhans Cells: located in the stratum spinosum; less numerous than keratinocytes.They have dendritic shape.They are immunologic cells responsible for recognizing foreign antigens harmful to the body.
Melanocytes:located at or in the basal layer. They function to produce pigment granules called melanin, the substance that gives skin its color.There are two major forms of melanin: eumelanin (brown and black)and pheomelanin (yellow to red).
Merkel Cells: clear cells found in the stratum basale; connected to other skin cells by desmosomes. Each cells is connected to an afferent nerve terminal, forming a structure known as a Merkel disk.
They are the sparsest cells in the epidermis and are found over the entire body.
They release hormones into the blood in response to neural stimuli,and function as specific, slowly adapting sensory touch receptors.(Neuroendocrine function)
Describe the organization of the dermis...What are the 2 layers, what is the main component, what is the main job of the dermis?
serves as the primary source of nutrition to the epidermis.
The two layers of the dermis: the papillary dermis and the reticular dermis,
are composed of cells, fibers, ground substances, nerves, and blood
Collagen is its main component, giving skin stress resistance.Collagen fibers are loosely arranged in the papillary dermis, but are tightly bundled in the reticular dermis. Hair and glandular structures are embedded in this layer.
What is Acanthroses Nigrows
skin condition where there is purple/black discoloration at the back of the neck and arm pits.
Usually seen in type II DM bc the kerotinocytes start responding to the extra insulin in the body by producing more cells.
Papillary layers vs Reticular layer
Papillary "pruney" layer: The basal cells of the epidermis project into the papillary dermis, forming rete ridges, which are used for grip,and what gives you pruney fingers. This layer of the dermis is richly vascularized. Lymph vessels and nerve tissue also are found in this layer.
Reticular Layer: forms the bulk of the dermal layer (80%). Dense irregular connective tissue. Where strength and elasticity of the skin comes from.
The papillary layer is supplied with free nerve endings that serve as what and what
nociceptors (pain receptors) and thermoreceptors
T/F: The dermis also contains encapsulated pressure-sensitive recepotrs that detect pressure and touch.
The largest is the pacinian corpuscle
Pacinian corpuscles are responsible for ?
detecting steady pressure and virbrations. They are rapidly adaptive and respond more to changes.
These are nerve endings concentrated on the fingertips,palms, soles, lips, tongue, face, and genitalia. They are rapidly adapting and don’t respond to constant, steady stimulation
these are deep in the dermis on hairy, glabrous skin.
They are slowly adapting receptors, responding to heavy pressure and joint
ruffini endings/ corpuscles
Deepest skin layer
Composed of fat and connective tissue for support and insulation
Pacinian corpuscles are also found here, even though they originate in the dermis
Describe the following exocrine glands/skin appendages and their functions: sebaceous gland, eccrine gland, apocrine gland, nails, and hair.
Sebaceous gland: Not very active until puberty bc they are stimulated by the production of androgens. Almost always connected to hair follicles, secrete sebum (oil) for lubrication of skin/hair (keeps from drying
out/evaporation), keeps skin soft, acts as bactericidal
: More common in the
body than apocrine glands. They produce sudoriferous (sweat), Originate in the
dermis and open directly to the skin surface, numerously located over the body
surface, produces thin watery secretions to regulate body temp.
Apocrine Gland: Larger and
located deep in the dermal layer. These sudoriferous gland empty into hair
follicles and around primarily in the axillary and groin region, influenced by
hormones, produces viscous secretions
Nails: hard keratinized cells of
epidermis, composed of: nail plate, free edge, nail bed, nail matrix,
eponychium (cuticle), hyponychium, lunula
Hair:comes in two primary ways: vessilus hair (unseeable) & terminal hair
(seeable, coarse, head/genital/axillary)
vitiligo vs albinism vs melasma
Vitiligo: It the absence of color causing pale/white patches to form on skin (hypopigmented). Sudden onset and can appear at any age. Possibly linked to hereditary predisposition, an autoimmune process, melanocyte destruction, or a lack of
melanocyte production. aka.... Without melanocytes the cell cannot produce melanin and
therefore no color.
Albinism: a genetic disorder in which there is complete or partial congenital absence of pigment. This is caused by a lack of the enzyme tyrosinas, which is produced by melanocytes that converts tyrosine to a precursor of melanin. Persons with albinism lack pigmentation in the skin, hair, and iris of the eye. There is no cure for albinism. aka...has melanocytes but not the enzyme
Melasma: characterized by darkened macules on face (hyperpigmented). This condition is worsened by sun exposure. Can be treated with bleaching.
Specialized sweat glands
a) Ceruminous glands
b) Mammary glands
Ceruminous: located in external auditory canal. Secretes ear wax.
Mammary glands: anatomically related to sweat glands but produces milk.
Compare the tissue involvement in first-degree,second-degree full thickness, and third-degree burns.
1st Degree Burn: superficial burn, only involves outer layers of the epidermis, they are red, pink, dry and painful (think sun burn). Usually no blister formation, heal in
2nd Degree full thickness Burn: involve both the entire epidermis and the dermis. Blisters and edema form. They appear mottled pink, red, or waxy white areas. These burns
heal in ~1 month, scar formation is normal, very painful (most pain sensors
remain intact), need supportive medical care.
3rd Degree Burn: extends into subcutaneous tissue (can even involve muscle and bone), extensive edema, no pain because nerve sensors have been destroyed, usually surrounded by 2nd degree burns (which are surrounded by areas of 1st degree burns), scar formation. Burns wider than 1.5 inches require skin grafts bc all regenerative elements have
4 factors contribute to the
development of pressure ulcers are?
1) pressure (shocking!) 2) shearing force 3) friction 4)moisture
what stage of ulcer is this? superficial, partial-thickness loss of skin involving epidermis, dermis, or both (abrasion, blister, or
shallow crater looking)
Stage one is the beginning, mostly just erythematous.
What stage of pressure ulcer is this?
full-thickness loss involving
damage/necrosis of subcutaneous tissue extending down to, but not through,
underlying fascia. Manifests as deep crater
Define the terms conduction,
radiation, convection, and evaporation, and relate them to the mechanisms for
gain and loss of heat from the body.
Conduction: The direct transfer of heat from one molecule to another. Normally only a small amount of body heat is
lost through conduction to a cooler surface
Blood carries, or conducts heat from the inner
core of the body to the skin surface
Radiation:Transfer of heat through air or a vacuum
Heat loss with radiation varies with the
temperature of the environment
Environmental temperature must be less than that of the body for heat loss to occur
Convection: Heat transfer through the circulation of air currents. Think of a fan or wind chill.
Evaporation:Involves the use of body heat to convert water on the skin to water vapor
Sweating occurs through the sweat glands and is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system
Sweating is mediated by Acetylcholine
drugs can interfere with heat loss by interrupting sweating
When the temperature of the surrounding
environment is greater than skin temperature, evaporation is the only way the
body can rid itself of heat
Describe the physiologic mechanisms that control the gain of heat from the body.
Temperature Increasing Mechanisms
Thermoreceptors stimulate afferent nerve impulses trigger the heat promoting area of the hypotahalmus (heat loss area inhibited) ---->The Autonomic Nervous System and efferent fibers then triggers one or more of these:
in metabolic rate
Describe the physiologic mechanisms that control the loss of heat from the body.(The body is too hot) 5 steps
Temperature Decreasing Mechanisms
Afferent nerve impulses trigger the heat loss
area of hypothalamus (heat promoting area is inhibited) ---->The Autonomic Nervous System then triggers one or more of these:
Vasodilation of blood vessels
Sweating (sympathetic outflow tract to skin)
Decrease in heat production
What three part is considered our "core temps"
What can cause fever? 5 things
brain tumor in the hypothalamus
Environmental conditions such as heat stroke
Characterize the physiology of
fever and how antipyretics work to reduce fever.
bacteria or breakdown products of bacteria
are engulfed by phagocytic cells
phagocytic cells release pyrogenic cytokines, (principally interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and
tumor necrosis factor a)
These pyrogens get released into the bloodstream for transport to the hypothalamus where they exert their action (aka formation of prostaglandins)
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) binds to receptors in the hypothalamus to raise its set point the hypothalamus initiates shivering and vasoconstriction that raise
the body’s core temperature to the new set point and fever is established
How do anti pyretic work?
they block prostaglandin production, therefore the hypothalamus wont raise it's set point = no fever, chills, shakes ect..
examples: Ibuprofen, aspirin, acetaminophen
Differentiate between the physiologic mechanisms involved in fever, hyperthermia, and malignant hyperthermia.
Fever: represents an increase in body temperature that results from a cytokine induced increase in the set point of the
thermostatic center in the hypothalamus by the production of prostaglandins by macrophages after they engulf bacteria/exogenous pyrogens.
Hyperthermia:The thermoregulatory center is overwhelmed by either excess heat production (hyperthyroidism), impaired heat loss (spinal cord injury), or excessive environmental heat (heat stoke). ***This is an increase in body temp without a change to the set point in the hypothalamus!***
Malignant Hyperthermia: Abnormal release of intracellular calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum causes sustained hypermetabolic rate and increased muscle contraction = fever and rigidity