A&P Final Vocab

  1. tRNA
    Transfer RNA. transfer free floating amino acids to the mRNA
  2. mRNA
    Messenger RNA. takes the transcribed "message" from DNA in to the cytoplasm where translation occurs
  3. rRNA
    Ribosomal RNA. form part of the ribosomes which provide a template for the assembly of amino acids into proteins
  4. gene
    section of DNA that codes for a particular protein or proteins
  5. codon
    three base mRNA sequence fornmed by a DNA triplet
  6. anticodon
    three base sequence on the tRNA, complimentary to the mRNA codon
  7. triplet
    three base sequence that provides info for a single amino acid
  8. nucleotide
    structural units that DNA and RNA are composed of
  9. amino acids
    building blocks of protein
  10. transcription
    process in which mRNA is synthesized using info from a DNA genes base sequence
  11. translation
    codons on mRNA is converted from the "language" of nucleic acids to the "language" of amino acids
  12. introns
    regions of excess bases within a gene that do not code for amino acids; leave in the nucleus
  13. exons
    remaining regions after the introns are removed
  14. genetic code
    instructs cells how to synthesize the required protein molecules that enable cells to survive
  15. diaphysis
    main shaft of long bone
  16. epiphyses
    both ends of a long bone
  17. epiphyseal line
    a plane or plate on a long bone, visible as a line, marking the junction of the epiphysis and diaphysis.
  18. epiphyseal plate
    hyaline cartilage plate in the metaphysis at each end of a long bone. The plate is found in children and adolescents; in adults, who have stopped growing, the plate is replaced by an epiphyseal line.
  19. periosteum
    dense white fibrous membrane that covers bone
  20. medullary cavity
    tube like hollow space in diaphysis
  21. compact bone
    A type of osseous tissue consisting of closely packed osteons or haversian systems, and forms the extremely hard exterior of bones
  22. osterprogenitor cells
    unspecialized cell derived from embryonic connective tissue, ability to divide, differentiate into osteoblasts
  23. spongy bone
    middle portion of bone
  24. articular cartilage
    layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the articular surface of epiphyses
  25. osteoclasts
    "bone breakers" function is degredation of bone
  26. osteoblast
    "bone generators" they mature into osteocytes
  27. osteocytes
    mature bone cells, principal cells of bone tissue
  28. resorption
    process by which osteoclasts break down bone[1] and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone fluid to the blood.
  29. canaliculi
    microscopic canals between the lacunae of ossified bone
  30. calcitonin
    naturally occurring hormone. It helps regulate calcium levels in your body and is involved in the process of bone building
  31. parathromone
    stimulates osteoclasts to break down bone matrix and increase blood calcium levels
  32. endosteum
    thin epithelial membrane that lines medullary cavity
  33. epimysium
    outermost layer of connective tissue which covers the muscle
  34. sarcoplasmic reticulum
    surrounds each myofibril forming interconnecting tubules; regulate intacellular levels of calcium ions
  35. G actin
    contain active sites to which the myosin cross bridges attach during contraction
  36. perimysium
    the connective tissue that surrounds bundles of muscle cells known as fascicles
  37. myofibrils
    contractile elements of skeletal muscle cells; consist of filaments and myofilaments
  38. troponin
    play a role in muscle contraction; attached to the actin filaments
  39. thin (actin) filament
    made of mostly protein actin; consists of G actin, tropomyosin, and troponin
  40. endomysium
    inner most layer of connective tissue surrounding muscle cells within each fascicle
  41. tropomyosin
    strands lie across the actin filaments, covering the active sites until contraction takes place
  42. sarcolemma
    cell membrane of a muscle cell
  43. thick (myosin) filament
    made of mostly protein myosin; similar in appearance to two golf clubs twisted together
  44. myosin heads ( cross bridges)
    part of muscle contraction; they attach to the active site on the G actin
  45. sarcoplasm
    contain muscle cells and myofibrils; similar to cytoplasm of other cells
  46. sarcomere
    the region of a myofibril and the smallest contractile unit of a skeletal muscle
  47. acetylcholine (ACh)
  48. transverse tubules (T tubules)
    invaginations of the sarcolemma that project deep into the cell
  49. nerve
    bundle of peripheral nerve fibers held together by severeal layers of connective tissue
  50. voltage
    the measure of potential energy
  51. epineurium
    a tough, fibrous sheath that binds together the fasicles in a nerve
  52. gyri
    outward folds in the surface of the cerebral cortex
  53. myelin
    white, fatty lipid substance
  54. neuron
    cell of the nervous system specialized to transmit messages throughout the body
  55. perineurium
    course connective tissue wrapping that binds groups of fibers in a nerve, forming a fascicle, or fiber bundle
  56. endoneurium
    a delicate connective tissue sheath surrounding each fiber in a nerve
  57. sulci
    a furrow on the brain, less deep than a fissure
  58. depolarization
    the loss of a state of polarity, the loss of a negative charge inside the plasma membrane
  59. ganglia
    group of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system
  60. synapse
    the region of communication between neurons, or a neuromuscular junction between a neuron and a muscle
  61. repolarization
    restoration of the membrane potential to the initial resting (polarized) state
  62. neuroglia
    non neural tissue of the central nervous system that performs supportive and other functions; also called gila
  63. motor (efferent) neurons
    carry impulses away from the central nervous system to muscles or glands
  64. sensory (afferent) neurons
    transmit impulses from sensory receptors in the skin or internal organs toward or into the central nervous system
  65. dendrite
    the branching extensions of neurons that carry electrical signals to the body; the receptive portion of a nerve cell
  66. synaptic cleft
    the fluid like space at a synapse between neurons
  67. Node of Ranvier
    a short gap in the myelin sheath that occurs at intervals along the length of a nerve fiber
  68. interneuron
    completes the pathway between afferent and efferent neurons; also called an association neuron
  69. axon
    neuron process that carries impulses away from the nerve cell body; efferent process; the conducting portion of a nerve cell
  70. nerve cell body
    the part of the neuron that includes the nucleus but excludes the processes
  71. synaptic terminals
    a bulb at the end of an axon in which neurotransmitter molecules are stored and released
  72. action potential
    an electrical event occurring when a stimulus of significant intensity is applied to a neuron or muscle cell, allowing sodium ions to move into the cell and reverse the polarity
  73. fibrous tunic
    outermost coat of the eyeball containing sclera and cornea
  74. iris
    the pigmented, involuntary muscle that acts as the diaphragm of the eye
  75. hyperopia
  76. CPS
    cycles per second
  77. glaucoma
    disorder of the eye, 2nd most common cause of blindness, eye disorder: an eye disorder marked by unusually high pressure within the eyeball that leads to damage of the optic disk
  78. vascular tunic
    middle layer of the eye, composed of the choroid, ciliary body, and iris
  79. sclera
    protects inner structure and helps maintain shape
  80. cornea
    allows photons to enter eye and protects anterior region of eye
  81. choroid
    contains blood vessels and large amounts of pigment, absorbs light rays to reduce scatter and its blood supply maintains the highly metabolic retina which is avascular
  82. ciliary body
    consists of ciliary process and ciliary muscle; ciliary process consists of folds on the internal surface that secretes aqueous humor; ciliary muscle is smooth muscle that alters the shape of the lens for near and far vision
  83. loudness
    related to the amplitude of the sound wave
  84. pitch
    related to the frequency of a soundwave
  85. frequency
    is expressedin CPS- cycles per second; or hertz(Hz)
  86. hertz
    unit of frequency
  87. cataract
    clouding of the lens that causes a persons vision to become distorted
  88. presbyopia
    "old vision" lens loses elasticity and the ciliary muscles lose strength which decreases its ability to thicken
  89. astigmatism
    a visual defect resulting from irregularity in the lens or cornea of the eye causing the image to be out of focus
  90. tinnitus
    persistent noise in ear: a continual noise in the ear, e.g. a ringing or roaring, usually caused by damage to the hair cells of the inner ear
  91. amplitude
    height of the sine wave, corresponds to intensity
  92. myopia
  93. refraction
    bend of light; refers to light
  94. cochlear hearing loss
    damage to the cochlear structures; usually in region near oval window where high pitched sound is registered
  95. conductive hearing loss
    conductive system damage in the outer and or middle ear
  96. basilar membrane
    the membrane that extends from the margin of the bony shelf of the cochlea to its outer wall and on which the sensory cells of the organ of Corti rest
  97. internal tunic
    retina; innermost layer of the eye
Card Set
A&P Final Vocab