Basic Management of Orthopedic Injuries

  1. What is casting material usually made of?
  2. Name a popular brand of casting material
  3. Dynacast has a rapid setting time what is included in this?
    • wet to place
    • dries
    • hardens
  4. What causes the cast to set and harden?
    the reaction between calcium sulfate and water
  5. Do casts provide ventilation?
    yes some
  6. Are casts waterproof?
    no, water resistant so never fully submerge
  7. How often should a cast be monitored?
    at least weekly
  8. Materials used for a cast:TCDV
    • tape for sittups
    • cotton padding
    • dynacast
    • vet wrap
  9. What type of injury should never has a cast?
  10. What is the purpose of a tape stirrup?
    provide stability to secure the bandage to the patient
  11. What is vet wrap used for?
    outer layer protection
  12. What is the rule of thumb for casts,splints, and bandages?
    the joint proximal and distal to the injury must be immobilized
  13. What are tongue depressors used for when bandaging?
    fascilitation of stirrups to keep them from tangling
  14. Since bandaging is done open ended with the toes exposed what is done to avoid moist dermatitis?
    application of wound powder between the toes
  15. The robert jones bandage is used for what?
    to temporarily immobilize a fracture pre-op
  16. For a fracture to properly heal what should always be done first?
    reduction(putting into place)
  17. Process of a healing fracture:RRLRRW
    • radiograph
    • reduction
    • light bandage
    • re-radiograph
    • re-reduce
    • wrap
  18. Materials in order of placement for a robert jones bandage:TRCVE
    • tape for stirrups
    • rolled cotton
    • cling gauze
    • vet wrap
    • elasticon or 2" tape
  19. Where is the elasticon or 2" tape placed?
    at the top of the bandage for stability
  20. The rolled cotton makes the robert jones bandage...
    bulky, but excellent to provide rigidity and support
  21. The modified robert jones bandage is used for what?
    to reduce post-op swelling
  22. What is the structural difference between the robert jones and the modified robert jones?
    • robert jones=rolled cotton(more) pre op
    • modified robert jones=light cotton(less)cast padding post op
  23. Modified robert jones AKA
    simple padded bandage
  24. What material may also be used with a modified robert jones?
    +/- tefla pad before cast padding
  25. When outside what should be put on over the bandage and for how long?
    • plastic bag
    • no longer than 30 minutes
  26. What is the most common type of sling?
    Ehmer sling
  27. The Ehmer sling is used specifically for the hind limb to stabilize _ coxofemoral luxations.
  28. What is a craniodorsal coxofemoral luxation?
    the femoral head pops out above the acebulum
  29. Name a sx that can be done to tx a hip luxation
  30. Does a Ehmer sling have padding?
    little to none
  31. For the Ehmer sling the femoral joint must be adducted (_ _) and the thigh abducted ( _ _)
    • femural joint-rotated inward
    • thigh-rotated outward
  32. What type of sling is a Ehmer sling?
    figure 8
  33. Where is a 90-90 degree flexion sling placed?
    stifle and hock
  34. What does a 90-90 flexion sling prevent?
    stifle joint stiffness and hyperextension
  35. What injury is a 90-90 felxion sling used for?
    distal femoral head fracture
  36. What is a carpal flexion sling used for?
    non- weight bearing sling for forelimb
  37. Hobbles prevent _ _ of limbs
    excessive abduction
  38. Hobbles prevent _ _ in the inguinal area
    excessive tension
  39. Hobbles are indicated after _ of _ coxofemoral luxation.
    reduction of ventral
  40. What is ventral coxofemoral luxation?
    when the femoral head pops out below the acetabulum
  41. Hobbles can also be used to prevent activity after _ _ or as an alternative to _ _
    • pelvic sx
    • sx repair
  42. Can an animal bear weight with hobbles in place?
  43. Hobbles are made of _ or _
    tape or elasticon
  44. Is padding used for hobbles?
  45. How long are hobbles usually in place?
    2-3 weeks
  46. What 2 things do Valpeau slings stabilize?
    • scapulohumeral fractures
    • scapulohumeral luxations
  47. Are Valpeau slings weight bearing?
    no non-weightbearing for forelimbs
  48. Velpeau slings prevent movement in all joints and hold the forelimb close to...
    the chest
  49. Schroeder-Thomas splint aka
    distal limb splint
  50. The Schroeder-Thomas splint is more common in large animal medicine and is what type of splint?
    traction splint
  51. The Schroeder- Thomas splint is well padded and and used for what?
    temporary stabilization of fractures
  52. Why does the Schroeder-Thomas splint need to be monitored?
    may need constant adjustments
  53. Why are proper measurements and padding essential to the Schroeder-Thomas splint?
    to prevent rubbing sores
  54. An abdominal or chest bandage provides what?
  55. Abdominal or chest bandages  help abdominal bleeds and .....
    seal/flail chest wounds
  56. What is flail chest?
    • when some ribs break and the fragments move opposite of the movement of the chest wall
    • -no external wound completely internal
  57. What is a chest sucking wound?
    external wound causes whistling
  58. Pressure wraps should never be left on for more than
    4 hrs
  59. Metasplints aka
    spoon splints
  60. Metasplints are used as an alternative to what?
  61. Metasplints especially need padding where?
    pressure points because they provide rigid support and may need to replaced frequently
  62. What should you look for with metasplints?
    proximal and distal sores
  63. Metasplints should be used rather than a cast when....
    there is an open wound that needs attention because it can be removed and replaced with ease
  64. How are metasplints placed?
  65. Spika splints may be needed to stabilize a more _ fracture
  66. Why are spika splints not normally used?
    patient is rendered immobile and they are difficult to maintain
  67. The spika splint provides stability and may go over the animal's _ or _
    back or shoulder
  68. How often should a patient be rotated with a spika splint?
  69. In a spika splint the patient is rotated to prevent......
    sores and IV fluid overload
  70. Aftercare: the toes are monitored for what?
    • warmth
    • color
    • swelling
  71. Aftercare: if the toes are cold/blue what does it mean?
  72. Aftercare:observe areas for _ and _
    chafing and odor
  73. Bandage should be protected from:DMC
    • dirt
    • moisture
    • chewing
  74. How long are back splints placed?
    24-48hrs post op
  75. Single rib fractures generally require no _ _
    surgival intervention
  76. With rib fractures radiographs are taken to confirm fractures but more importantly to rule out _/_
    pneumothorax/pleural effusion
  77. What is a lung bullae?
    necrotic lung tissue
Card Set
Basic Management of Orthopedic Injuries