Basic Management of Orthopedic Injuries
What is casting material usually made of?
Name a popular brand of casting material
Dynacast has a rapid setting time what is included in this?
wet to place
What causes the cast to set and harden?
the reaction between calcium sulfate and water
Do casts provide ventilation?
Are casts waterproof?
no, water resistant so never fully submerge
How often should a cast be monitored?
at least weekly
Materials used for a cast:TCDV
tape for sittups
What type of injury should never has a cast?
What is the purpose of a tape stirrup?
provide stability to secure the bandage to the patient
What is vet wrap used for?
outer layer protection
What is the rule of thumb for casts,splints, and bandages?
the joint proximal and distal to the injury must be immobilized
What are tongue depressors used for when bandaging?
fascilitation of stirrups to keep them from tangling
Since bandaging is done open ended with the toes exposed what is done to avoid moist dermatitis?
application of wound powder between the toes
The robert jones bandage is used for what?
to temporarily immobilize a fracture pre-op
For a fracture to properly heal what should always be done first?
reduction(putting into place)
Process of a healing fracture:RRLRRW
Materials in order of placement for a robert jones bandage:TRCVE
tape for stirrups
elasticon or 2" tape
Where is the elasticon or 2" tape placed?
at the top of the bandage for stability
The rolled cotton makes the robert jones bandage...
bulky, but excellent to provide rigidity and support
The modified robert jones bandage is used for what?
to reduce post-op swelling
What is the structural difference between the robert jones and the modified robert jones?
robert jones=rolled cotton(more) pre op
modified robert jones=light cotton(less)cast padding post op
Modified robert jones AKA
simple padded bandage
What material may also be used with a modified robert jones?
+/- tefla pad before cast padding
When outside what should be put on over the bandage and for how long?
no longer than 30 minutes
What is the most common type of sling?
The Ehmer sling is used specifically for the hind limb to stabilize _ coxofemoral luxations.
What is a craniodorsal coxofemoral luxation?
the femoral head pops out above the acebulum
Name a sx that can be done to tx a hip luxation
Does a Ehmer sling have padding?
little to none
For the Ehmer sling the femoral joint must be adducted (_ _) and the thigh abducted ( _ _)
femural joint-rotated inward
What type of sling is a Ehmer sling?
Where is a 90-90 degree flexion sling placed?
stifle and hock
What does a 90-90 flexion sling prevent?
stifle joint stiffness and hyperextension
What injury is a 90-90 felxion sling used for?
distal femoral head fracture
What is a carpal flexion sling used for?
non- weight bearing sling for forelimb
Hobbles prevent _ _ of limbs
Hobbles prevent _ _ in the inguinal area
Hobbles are indicated after _ of _ coxofemoral luxation.
reduction of ventral
What is ventral coxofemoral luxation?
when the femoral head pops out below the acetabulum
Hobbles can also be used to prevent activity after _ _ or as an alternative to _ _
Can an animal bear weight with hobbles in place?
Hobbles are made of _ or _
tape or elasticon
Is padding used for hobbles?
How long are hobbles usually in place?
What 2 things do Valpeau slings stabilize?
Are Valpeau slings weight bearing?
no non-weightbearing for forelimbs
Velpeau slings prevent movement in all joints and hold the forelimb close to...
Schroeder-Thomas splint aka
distal limb splint
The Schroeder-Thomas splint is more common in large animal medicine and is what type of splint?
The Schroeder- Thomas splint is well padded and and used for what?
temporary stabilization of fractures
Why does the Schroeder-Thomas splint need to be monitored?
may need constant adjustments
Why are proper measurements and padding essential to the Schroeder-Thomas splint?
to prevent rubbing sores
An abdominal or chest bandage provides what?
Abdominal or chest bandages help abdominal bleeds and .....
seal/flail chest wounds
What is flail chest?
when some ribs break and the fragments move opposite of the movement of the chest wall
-no external wound completely internal
What is a chest sucking wound?
external wound causes whistling
Pressure wraps should never be left on for more than
Metasplints are used as an alternative to what?
Metasplints especially need padding where?
pressure points because they provide rigid support and may need to replaced frequently
What should you look for with metasplints?
proximal and distal sores
Metasplints should be used rather than a cast when....
there is an open wound that needs attention because it can be removed and replaced with ease
How are metasplints placed?
Spika splints may be needed to stabilize a more _ fracture
Why are spika splints not normally used?
patient is rendered immobile and they are difficult to maintain
The spika splint provides stability and may go over the animal's _ or _
back or shoulder
How often should a patient be rotated with a spika splint?
In a spika splint the patient is rotated to prevent......
sores and IV fluid overload
Aftercare: the toes are monitored for what?
Aftercare: if the toes are cold/blue what does it mean?
Aftercare:observe areas for _ and _
chafing and odor
Bandage should be protected from:DMC
How long are back splints placed?
24-48hrs post op
Single rib fractures generally require no _ _
With rib fractures radiographs are taken to confirm fractures but more importantly to rule out _/_
What is a lung bullae?
necrotic lung tissue
Basic Management of Orthopedic Injuries