Biological Anthro Lab Quiz

  1. The Pectoral Girdle
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    • 3 edges:
    • vertebral (medial) border,
    • axillary (lateral) border
    • superior border

    • Prominent feature
    • Spine of scapula (along dorsal surface)
    • Glenoid fossa (shallow socket that attaches to the humerus to create shoulder joint)

    • Major projections
    • Acromial process (end of spine of scapula, where lateral end of clavicle attaches)
    • coracoid process (attachment point for the upper arm muscles)
  2. The Pectoral Girdle
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    two ends that functions to hold the upper limb away from the chest providing maximum movement and stability.

    • Sternal (medial) end
    • attaches to sternum
    • rounded/oval in cross-section

    • Acromial (lateral) end
    • attaches to scapula
    • flattened in cross-section

    • Important landmark
    • Concoid tubercle - point where the ligament attaches to the Coracoid process of the scapula
  3. The Upper Limb
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    Proximal end - rounded head (fits into glenoid fossa of the scapula & connects the acromial end of the clavicle by ligaments and muscles.

    Head separated from the shaft by the anatomical neck & further constricted by the surgical neck.

    • Prominences
    • Greater & lesser tuberocity separated by intertubercular groove

    Muscles of the rotaor cuff attach on these tubercles.

    Deltoid tuberosity - deltoid muscles attaches

    • Distal end - two projections:
    • Trochlea (resembles spool of thread)
    • articulates w/ Ulna
    •         3 depressions lie above Trochlea: coronoid fossa, radial fossa, olecranon fossa.

    • Medial epicondyle distal medial end
    • Lateral epicondyle distal lateral end

    epicondyles are attachment sites for forearm muscles.

    • Capitulum (small round projection)
    • articulates w/Radius
  4. The Upper Limb
    Radius & Ulna
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    • Radius
    • Proximal end landmarks
    • Head - attaches to capitulum of humerus
    • Constricted neck
    • Radial tuberosity -attachment site for the bicep muscles

    • Distal end landmarks
    • Styloid process (pointed)
    • Ulnar notch (concave)

    • Ulna
    • Proximal end
    • Olecranon process - projection that fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus
    • Semilunar notch - encloses the trochlea of the humerus

    Radial notch - lower lateral side of the semilunar notch articulates w/ the head of the radius

    • Distal end
    • Styloid process (pointed small)
  5. The Upper Limb
    Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges
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    • Carpals - 8 small bones of the wrist bound tightly by ligaments.
    • Proximal row - scaphoid, lunate, triquetral and pisiform
    • Distal row - trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate 

    • Metacarpals
    • bones in the palm

    • Phalanges
    • each hand contains 14 phalanges
    • each finger has 3 phalanges arranged into proximal, middle and distal rows
    • The thumb only has 2 phalanges, proximal and distal
  6. The Pelvic Girdle
    Coxal bones (singular: Os Coxae)
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    3 bones fuse during adolescence

    • Ilium
    • auricular surface - ear shaped region articulates w/ the sacrum to form the sacroiliac joint.
    • Greater sciatic notich - sciatic nerve passes through this region
    • Iliac crest - runs along superior rim of the ilium and terminates at each end at a bony prominence

    • Ischium
    • Ischial tuberosity - attachment site of hamstring muscles
    • Obturator foramen - large opening that blood vessels and nerves pass through on their way from the pelvic cavity to the lower limb.

    • Pubis
    • Pubic symphysis - where the left and right pubic bones meet.
    • Cartilaginous joint surface area changes form with age. Separates during childbirth

    All three bones form the Acetabulum - deep socket where the head of the femur articulates to form the hip joint
  7. The Lower Limb
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    • Femur
    • Proximal end
    • ball-shaped head - articulates at the acetabulum fo the pelvis (hip joint)
    • Fovea capitis - small pit short strong ligament of the head of the femur runs into the acetabulum and keeps it in place

    • Greater trochanter
    • Lesser trochanter

    Gluteal tuberosity - attachment for the gluteal muscles

    Linea aspera - raised line or ridge that anchors the hamstring muscles

    • Distal end
    • medial and lateral condyles (large projections with a smooth inferior surface that articulates with tibia.)

    Condyles are separated posteriorly by the large intercondylar notch and anteriorly by the smooth Patellar surface
  8. The Lower Limb
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    Lies just in front of the distal femur at the patella surface.

    • The inferior edge is shaped into the apex.
    • The posterior surface is composed of two articular facets, medial and lateral.
  9. The Lower Limb
    Tibia & Fibula
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    • Tiba
    • Larger bone of the lower leg.

    • Proximal end
    • Tibial tuberosity - attachment site for the quadriceps muscles of the anterior thigh via the patellar ligament
    • Anterior crest - (shin)

    • Distal end
    • Medial malleolus - comprises one of the ankle bones.

    • Fibula
    • lateral lower leg bone not involved in the knee joint

    • Proximal end
    • head

    • Distal end
    • Lateral malleolus
  10. The Lower Limb
    Tarsals, Metatarsals, Phalanges
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    • 7 tarsals, 5 metatarsals, 14 phalanges
    • big toe - Hallux

    Weight of body is carried through the largest tarsal, talus - articulates with tibia to form the ankle joint and the calcaneus

    • Arches
    • Longitudinal arch - runs from heel to toes
    • Transverse arch - runs from medial to lateral
  11. The Skull
    The cranium
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    • The cranial vault forms two major areas:
    • Calvaria - superior, lateral, and posterior walls
    • Cranial base - bottom of skill

    Bones of the brain case (midline)

    • Frontal
    • Occipital
    • Sphenoid
    • Ethmoid
    • Temporals (paired bones)
    • Parietals (paired bones)
    • form the top and sides of cranium

    • Face (14 bones)
    • Paired
    • Maxilla
    • Platine
    • Zygomatic
    • Lacrimal
    • Nasal Concha
    • Inferior Nasal
    • Unpaired
    • Mandible
    • Vomer
  12. The Skull
    Frontal & Occipital bones
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    • Frontal
    • Landmarks
    • Supraorbital forman
    • Galbella
    • Supraorbital margin
    • Supraorbital arch (browridge)

    • Occipital
    • forms posterior walls and the base of skull

    • Landmarks:
    • Foramen magnum (large base opening)

    Occipital condyles (small facets on either side of foramen magnum articulates w/ first cervical vertebra)

    Nuchal lines - external surface of occipital bone. Area of muscle attachment for muscles of the neck and shoulders
  13. The Skull
    Temporal Bone        
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    • Important features
    • Squamous portion - smooth flattened area just inferior to the parietal bone

    Zygomatic arch - makes up the cheek bone

    Mandibular fossa - small depression point of articulation of the mandible to the cranium >Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) [Only synovial joint in the cranium]

    External auditory meatus - ear canal inside 3 tiny ossicles: the malleus, incus, and stapes

    Mastoid process - point of muscle attachment for the neck muscles.
Card Set
Biological Anthro Lab Quiz
Ch. 1-3