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A mineral is made up of an element or elements bonded together
An element is a substance that CANNOT be broken down into other substances by ordinary chemical methods
An atom is the smallest unit of a substance that retains properties of that element.
What are the 3 types of subatomic particles that make up an atom?
2. Neutrons(0 net charge)
3. Electrons (-charge)
What forms the nucleus of an atom?
Protons and Neutrons
______ orbit the nucleus in discrete shells or energy levels
The numbers of electrons and protons are ____ in a neutral atom
equal or not equal?
the outermost shell of a atom is it's _____ electron
chemical reactions involve only the outermost shell, _____ electrons
What are isotopes?
atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons
Isotopes may be either stable or unstable.
isotopes retain all of their protons and neutrons over time
unstable or radioactive isotopes spontaneously ____ subatomic particles from their nuclei
stable isotopes can be used to track _______ over time
What is an Ionic Bond?
when the "transfer"of valence electrons from one atom to another occurs
What is a Covalent Bond?
when the "sharing" of valence electrons among adjacent atoms occurs
What is a Metallic Bond?
when electrons flow freely throughout metals which results in high electrical conductivity
What is chemical bonding controlled by?
the outermost shell (valence electrons)
What is an example of ionic bonding in a household item in the kitchen?
What can break an ionic bond?
water (think of salt)
Atoms or groups with unequal numbers of protons and electrons, which have a non-zero charge, are called ____
Positive and negative ions are attracted to one another and may stick or bond together
in a chemical bond, elements will usually be _____ unless their valence shell is full
there are __ electrons when a valence shell is full
A mineral is a _______ solid
formed by natural ________ processes
with a specific _______ composition
consistent and recognizable ______ properties and _______ properties
A mineral is a
formed by natural
with a specific
consistent and recognizable
What are the 8 most common elements that are apart of 97% of the atoms in Earths crust?
O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, K, Mg
what is the most common minerals in the Earths Crust?
silicates which is Si and O bonded together
The minerals in