1.4.1 psych test

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  1. In Psych test, what does error imply?
    it means that there will always be some inaccuracy in our measurements
  2. Test that are relatively free of measurement error are considered?
  3. Psychological tests deal with complex traits that are...
    • intangible
    • *intelligence and aggresiveness
  4. What did Charles Spearman do?
    • worked out most of the basics of contemporary reliability theory
    • *published it in 1904 in American journal of psychology
  5. What book did Thorndlike publish?
    an introduction to the theory of mental and social measurements
  6. basics of test score thoery- What is an observed score (x) composed off? (2)
    -true score (T)

    -error (E)
  7. basics of test score thoery- What shape is the distribution of random errors?
    normal or bell shaped
  8. basics of test score thoery- In a very accurate test the distribution is ____
  9. basics of test score theory- In a very innacurate test the distribution can be very..
  10. What is the standard error of measuremnt?
    is the SD of the error scores around the true score
  11. what 2 things are used to estimate the standard error of measurement?
    -standard deviation of the observed scores

    -reliability of the test
  12. Because measuring instruments are imperfect, the score observed for each person..
    almost always differs from th persons  true ability or characteristic
  13. the difference between the true score and the observed score is..
    the measurement error
  14. What does the item response theory do to the tests? (3)
    -it shortens the test

    -individualizes it

    -it is believed to provide a more reliable estimate of the individuals true ability
  15. what does somebody have to do if they want to use a test to make an employment or educational plaement decisions?
    • -they need to have it approved by federal govt
    • *fed govt need to see that it is reliable
  16. What does a score of reliability .40 mean? (2)
    -40% of the difference among the people tested with it can be predicted from the test results

    -60% must be ascribed to random or chance factors
  17. What is a big part of psych testing?
    measuring differences between individuals
  18. what are 3 ways test reliability can be estimated?
    -test-retest method

    -parallel forms method

    -internal consistency method
  19. 3 ways to test reliability- which two ways are basically similar?
    -internal consistency

    -parallel forms
  20. 3 ways to test reliability-how many times is the test-retest method administered?
    2 different times
  21. 3 ways to test reliability- what does the test-retest method used for?
    applies when measuring stable traits
  22. 3 ways to test reliability- What can happen when adminitering a test-retest method exam?
    carry-over effect
  23. 3 ways to test reliability- What is test-retest method an example off?
    intelligence and achievement tests
  24. 3 ways to test reliability-test-retest method- What does a low correlation between two scores on 2 administrations mean?
    the characteristic is not stable
  25. 3 ways to test reliability- What is the parallel forms method like?
    • tests the person on 2 different forms of the same test
    • *the items should measure the same construct but the items should be different
  26. 3 ways to test reliability- which provides one of the rigorous  assesments of relaibility?
    parallel forms method
  27. 3 ways to test reliability- decription of split-half method
    • -divides the items in half and seeing if you get the same basic socres on one half of the items as you do on the other
    • *items that are selected for each half should be good samples of the items on the whole test
  28. 3 ways to test reliability- What is anohter way to administer a split-half method?
    odd-even method
  29. Methods for estimating the internal consistency of a test- KR20
    estimates internal consistency by simultaneously considering all possible ways of splitting the items
  30. Methods for estimating the internal consistency of a test- What is the coefficient alpha?
    it estimates the internal consistency item by item of tests in which the items are NOT scored 1 or 0
  31. Methods for estimating the internal consistency of a test- who made the coefficient alpha?
  32. What do all measures of internal consistency evaluate?
    the extend to which the different items on the test measure the same ability or trait
  33. Difference score on reliability
    • Sometimes the difference score is what we are trying to acquire
    • *a person coming after treatment or after training
  34. For what method is the  kappa statisitc useful in?
    it is the best method for estimating interrater reliability
  35. What is direct observations of behavior?
    a behaviorally-oriented psychologists would record the number of instances that a certain behavior occurs
  36. What does the kappa stat indicate?
    the actual agreement as a proportion of potential agreement following a correction for chance agreement
  37. What does the standard error of measuremnt estimate?
    the degree to which a test provides innacurate
  38. How many SDs lower are the students from non college preparatory scoring thn college prep students?
    1.5 SDs
  39. What reliability score would be good enough for resesarch purposes?
    .7 to .8
  40. Would a reliability of .9 be good enough for when tests are used to make important decisions about someones future?
    no, it should be higher
  41. what to do with low reliability tests- what would increasing the number of items do for a test?
    increase the reliability
  42. what to do with low reliability tests- How can cronbach's alpha help out in this?
    it can point out items that do not actually measure the construct,leaving them in reduces the tests reliability
  43. what to do with low reliability tests- what does the  correction for attentuation do?
    it estimates what the correlation between tests would have been if there had been no error of measurement
  44. There can be no validity without...
  45. If a test is not reliable then
    one cannot demonstrate that it has any meaning
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1.4.1 psych test
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