bio exam 1 part 2

  1.  Follow and troubleshoot the sequence of event that occur during protein synthesis and export.
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  2. Dynamic instabillity
    ·       A property of actin filaments in the cytoskeleton, characterized by rapid shortening or lengthening of individual filaments.
  3. Endosymbiosis-
    The theory that the eukaryotic cell evolved viathe engulfing of one prokaryotic cell by another
  4. granum
    a stack of thylakoids
  5. thylakoid
    - A flattened sac within a chloroplast. Thylakoid membranes contain all of the chlorophyll in a plant, in addition to the electron carriers of photophosphorylation
  6. chloroplast
    ·       The sites of photosynthesis. And an organelle bounded by a double membrane containing the enzymes and pigments that perform photosynthesis. Chloroplasts occur only in eukaryotes.
  7. plastid
    ·       A class of plant cell organelles that includes the chloroplast, which houses biochemical pathways for photosynthesis.
  8. inter-membrane space
    • o  
    • separates the biochemical processes of the mitochondrion from the surrounding cytosol
  9. matrix
    the fluid filled region inside the inner membrane
  10. cristae
    the extensively folded inter membrane of a mitochondrion
  11. mitochondria
    ·       The sites where energy from some digested molecules is converted to ATP. And An organelle in eukaryotic cells that contains the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, the respiratory chain, and oxidative phosphorylation.
  12. vacuole
    ·       The primary storage organelles for some types of cells.
  13. autophagy
    The programmed destruction of cell components
  14. lysosome
    • o  
    • A membrane-enclosed organelle originating from the Golgi apparatus and containing hydrolytic enzymes.
  15. vesicles
    • o  
    • Small membrane-bound droplets that shuttle materials among members of the endomembrane system and other parts of the cell
  16. Golgi apparatus
    • o  
    • A system of concentrically folded membranes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells; functions in secretion from the cell by exocytosis.
  17. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum-
    • o  
    • an organelle that lacks ribosomes and has a tubular appearance also responsible for the synthesis of lipids
  18. Rough endoplasmicreticulum
    • o  
    • An organelle with ribosomes embedded on the surface. And is resposibe for the synthesis of proteins
  19. Endomembrane system-
    ·       A system of intracellular membranes that exchange material with one another, consisting of the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, and lysosomes when present.
  20. ribosome
    The non-membrane bound organelles responsible forprotein synthesis
  21. chromatin
    • o  
    • The nucleic acid–protein complex that makes up eukaryotic chromosomes.
  22. nuclear pores
    • o  
    • connect the interior of the nucleus to the cytoplasm and regulate the traffic between these two cellular compartments
  23. nuclear membrane
    • o  
    • barrier that separates the nucleus form the cytoplasm and is composed of two membranes
  24. nucleolus
    • o  
    • - A small, generally spherical body found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and the place where ribosomes are assembled from RNA and proteins
  25. nucleus
    ·       -  In cells, the centrally located compartment of eukaryotic cells that is bounded by a double membrane and contains the chromosomes.
  26. cell membrane (plasma membrane)
    ·       The membrane that surrounds the cell, regulating the entry and exit of molecules and ions. Every cell has one
  27. Plasmodesmata-
    A cytoplasmic strand connecting two adjacent plantcells.
  28. cell wall
    ·       A structure found on the outside of the cell membranes of Prokaryotic cells that is used for structure and support of the cell.
  29. cytosol
    • o  
    • The fluid portion of the cytoplasm, excluding organelles and other solids
  30. cytoplasm
    ·       The material enclosed withing the membrane of the cell but outside the nucleus, including liquid, dissolved solutes and insoluble particles such as ribosomes.
  31. eukaryote
    - organisms whose cells contain their genetic material inside a nucleus. Includesall life other than archaea, and bacteria
  32. prokaryote
    • o  
    • A small cell that is not subdivided into different compartments on the inside and does not separate the DNA from the rest of the components of the cytoplasm ex: bacteria and Archaea
  33. organelles
    Membrane-enclosed compartments inside cells, each witha specialized function.
  34. Predict relative changes in organelle composition based on cell function
    • o  
    • Cells adapt to needs by expanding much used organelles and shrinking less needed organelles
  35. Explain the probable origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
    • o  both mitochondria and chloroplasts came to be cellular organelles through endosymbiosis
    • o   Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own prokaryote-like DNA and replicate on their own
    • o   Inner membranes of both resemble prokaryote membranes
    • o   Probably engulfed by a cell millions of years ago and infecting bacteria did not get destroyed and work together.
    • o   Evolution caused it to survive cause it was favorable
  36. ·       Classify cells as prokaryotic or eukaryotic based on cell structure
    • Prokaryotes:  small, sinpe celled bacteria and Archaea
    • o   Eukaryotes:  larger single or multi-celled animals, plants, fungi, and protists
    •          Compartmentalized units,including a nucleus
  37. ·       Predict the relationships between surface area, volume and the metabolic needs of a cell
    • o  
    • Need more SA for more V because more V + more metabolic need
  38. Describe  the structure and function of chloroplasts
    A chloroplast is enclosed within two       membranes. In addition, it contains a series of internal membranes that       look like stacks of flat, hollow discs, called thylakoids. Each stack of       thylakoids is called a granum (plural grana). Light energy is converted to       chemical energy on the thylakoid membranes. The aqueous fluid surrounding       the thylakoids is called the stroma, and it is there that carbohydrates       are synthesized/cite for photosynthesis
  39. ·       Describe the structure and function of mitochondria .
  40. Mitochondria have two membranes. The       outer membrane has large pores, and most substances can pass through it.       The inner membrane separates the biochemical processes of the       mitochondrion from the surrounding cytosol. The inner membrane is       extensively folded into structures called cristae, and the fluid-filled       region inside the inner membrane is referred to as the mitochondrial       matrix. The mitochondrion contains many enzymes for energy metabolism, as       well as DNA and ribosomes for the synthesis of a small proportion of the       mitochondrial proteins./ primary       function is to convert the chemical energy of those molecules into a form       the cell can use, namely the energy-rich nucleotide ATP
  41. ·       Summarize the process of lysosome functions.
    They contain hydrolases (digestive       enzymes), and they are the sites where macromolecules—proteins,       polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and lipids—are hydrolyzed into their       monomers 

    a small vesicle containing       macromolecules called a phagosome, which breaks free of the plasma       membrane to move into the cytoplasm. The phagosome fuses with a primary       lysosome to form a secondary lysosome, in which hydrolysis occurs, it now       contains undigested particles. It (secondary), then moves to the plasma       membrane, fuses with it, and releases the undigested contents to the       environment.
  42. Compare the functions of internal membranes and compartments in Eukaryotic cells
  43. Rough er- synthesis of proteins due to ribosomes      
    • Smooth er-synthesis of lipids
    • Golgi- packaging for transport
  44. ·       Identify the different parts of the endomembrane system.
  45. Rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth       endoplasmic reticulum , golgi apparatus,
  46. Describe the role of ribosomes in protein synthesis
    The       role of ribosomes is to translate the nucleotide       sequence of a messenger RNA molecule into a polypeptide       chain aka make proteins
  47. ·       Discuss the role of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells.
  48. It is the location of the DNA and of RNA replication.
    • It is where DNA is transcribed to RNA      
    • .It contains the nucleolus, a region       where ribosomes begin to be assembled from RNA and proteins
  49. ·       Compare and contrast the organization, function, and size of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
    Prokaryotes:  small, sinpe celled bacteria and       Archaea

    Eukaryotes:  larger single or multi-celled animals,       plants, fungi, and protistsCompartmentalized subunits, including a       nucleus
  50. ·       Describe the factors that limit cell size.
    volume determines need 

    Surface area determines rate of       transport

    Relationship between volume (need) and       surface area (ability to meet the need)

    Surface area to volume ratio (SA / V)

     cells stay small but cannot be too small
  51. Explain the three main parts of cell theory.
  52. Cells are the fundamental units of life.
    • All living organisms are composed of cells.
    • All cells come from preexisting cells.
Card Set
bio exam 1 part 2
kek concepts that I skipped and cells