Anatomy Chaper 1 flashcards

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  1. Anatomy
    Study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts.
  2. Physiology
    Study of how the body and its parts work or function
  3. Gross Anatomy
    Large Structures, easily observable
  4. Microscopic Anatomy
    Small structures, only see under a microscope
  5. Levels of structual organization
    • Chemical level: Atoms combine to form molecules
    • Celluar level: Cells are made up of molecules
    • Tissue Level: Tissue Consist of similar types of cells
    • Organ level: Organs made up of different types of tissues
    • Organ System: consist of different organs that work closely together
    • Organismal level: work together to create an organism
  6. Body Systems
    Integumentery Skelatal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive
  7. Integumentry system
    Forms external body covering, protects deeper tissue from injury, synthesises vitamin D, location of cutaneous nerve receptors
  8. Skeletal System
    Protects and supports organs, provides muscle attachment  for movement, site of blood call formation, stores minerals
  9. Muscular System
    Allows locomotion, maintans posture, produces heat
  10. Nervous System
    Fast acting control, responds to internal and external changes, activates muscle glands
  11. Endocrine System
    Secretes regulatory hormones such as  growth, reproduction, and metabolism
  12. Cardiocascular System
    Transports matierials in the body via blood pumped by the heart such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes
  13. Lymphatic System
    Returns fluids to vessels, desposes of debri, involved in immunity
  14. Respiratory System
    Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
  15. Digestive system
    Breaks down food, allows nutrient  absorption into blood, ellminates indegestible matierial
  16. Urinary System
    Elminates notrogenious wastes, maintains acid-base balance, regulation of matierials such as water and electrolytes
  17. Reproductive System
    Production of offspring
  18. Nessasary Life Functions
    • Maintain Boundries
    • Movement: Locomotion, movement of substances
    • Responsiveness: Ability to sense changes and react
    • Digestion: Break down and delivery nutrients
    • Metabolism: Production of energy, making body structures
    • Excretion: Elimination of wastes from metabolic reactions
    • Reproduction: Future generation
    • Growth: Increasing of cell size and number
  19. Survival Needs
    • Nutrients: Chemicals for energy and cell building, Includes carbohydrates, protiens, lipids, vitamins and minerals
    • Oxygen: Required for chemical reactions
    • Water: 60-80% of body wieght, provides for metabolc reaction
    • Stable Body Temp
    • Atmospheric Pressure must be appropriate
  20. Homeostasis
    The bodys ability to maintain reletively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously changing
  21. Homeostatic imbalance
    A disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease
  22. Neural and hormonal control sytems that the body communicates through
    • Receptor: Responds to changes in the enviorment, sends info to the control center
    • Control Center: Determines set piont, analyzes info, determines appropriate respones
    • Effector: Provides a means for response to the stimulas
  23. Negative and positive feedback
    • Negative: Includes most homeostatic control mechansms, shuts of the originl stimulas or reduces intesity
    • Positive: Increases the original stimulas to push the variable farther, occurs in blood clotting and birth of a baby
  24. Directional Terms
    • Supieror: Above
    • Inferior: Below
    • Anterior: At front of the body
    • Postierior: At back of the body
    • Medial: At midline of the body
    • Lateral: Away from midline of the body
    • Proximal: Close to the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
    • Distal: Farther from the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk 
    • Superficial: Toward Body surface
    • Deep: Away from body Surface
  25. Body Sections
    • Saggital Section: Divides the body into right and left parts, if left an right are equal its called a midsaggital.
    • Frontal Section: Divided the body into anterior and postierior parts
    • Transverse Section: Divides the body or organ in superior and inferior parts
  26. Body Cavities
    • Dorsal Body Cavitiy: Two subdivisions: Crainial Cavity and Spinal Cavity
    • Ventral Body Cavity: Two subdivisions: Thoractic and Amdominopelvic (Separated by diaphram)
  27. Regions
    • Umbilical (Center)
    • Epigastric (Supierior to Umbilical)
    • Hypogastric (Inferior to Umbilical)
    • Iliac (Lateral to Hypogastric)
    • Lumbar (Lateral to Umbilical)
    • Hypochondriac (Lateral to Epigastric)
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Anatomy Chaper 1 flashcards
Flashcards For chaper 1 of Anatomy
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