Chapter 7

  1. Cognitive Map
    -The mental represention of the enivironment that surrounds people

    -Relationship among objects

    -Neighborhoods,cities, and countries

    - Represent spatial aspects of external environment
  2. Spatial Cognition
    How one remembers the world of navigation and how one keeps track of objects in a spatial array
  3. Cognitive Maps&Distance-Thorndyke
    -Distance appears longer when route is clutter

    -Ex. Miles and more miles if intervening cities

  4. Semantic Categories
    -When two places belong to the same catagory, one believes it is geographically close

    -Hirtle-towns and college campus
  5. Landmark Effect/McNamara and Diwadkar
    -General tendency to provide shorter estimates when traveling to a landmark, rather than a nonlandmark

    • -Landmark to nonlandmark-1.7 inches
    • -Nonlandmark to landmark-1.4 inches
  6. Angles/ Moar&Bower
    -Heuristic-solves a problem/90degree-angle heuristic- the angles represent angles in a mental mp being closer to the 90 degree than they really are

    -Because when two streets meet in a urban area it forms a 90 degree angle

    -Symmetry Heuristic- small inconsistencies of geographical reality are smoothed over, creating cognitive maps that are idealized and standerdized
  7. Rotation Heuristic
    -Tilited geographical structure that is slightly tilted will be known as more vertical or more horizontal than they really is

    -Rotating a single coastline, country, building, or other figure clockwise or counterclockwise so that the border is nearly vertical or horizontal in direction

    -Ex.Cites in California
  8. Alignment Heuristic
    -Geographical structures that are being more lined up than they really are.

    -Lining up several separate countries, buildings or other figures in a straight row

    -When top-down processing is to active, one misses important details of bottom-up processing

  9. Franklin&Tversky
    -Ask particpants to depict a scene than recall information

    -Answered quickest with what was above and below them

    -2nd- ahead or behind

    -3rd-right or left

    -Constructed images as they went along and created an observer of the scene
  10. Spatial Framework Model
    -Below&Above spatial dimension is very important- Becuse of gravity and asymmetric affect&upright human body is physically asymmetric

    -Front&Back spatial dimension is moderately important- look at front than back/ human fron half is not asymmetric with back

    -Right&Left spatial dimension is least important- Decisions take longer and not linked to gravity/ but since roughly symmetrical, it is hard to tell sometimes

    • -North&South-easier to tell because of above&below
    • -East&West- harder to tell because of right&left
Card Set
Chapter 7
Psycology 3350