Supergroup #3: Rhizaria
Consists of which three species?
What are the defining characteristics of a Radiolarian?
- Glassy exoskeleton made of silica
- Bilateral or radial symmetry
- Pseudopodia (false feet) extend outward through small openings in exoskeleton
- forms most of the ooze on seafloor
Name two protists that contain silica, and which supergroup they're from.
- Diatoms--Chromalveolata, Stramenophila
Do Radiolarians have bilateral or radial symmetry?
Pseudopodia means... ? Which protist species has pseudopodia?
- False feet
- All species in the supergroup Rhizaria!
- (Radiolarians, Foraminiferans, and Cercozoans)
Foraminiferans are found in which supergroup?
What are the defining characteristics of foraminiferans? (Supergroup Rhizaria)
- Freshwater and marine protists
- Many can derive nutrients from photosythesis of symbiotic algae living withing their tests
- Fossils created limestone deposits (White Cliffs of Dover)
- have tests or organic substance with grains of calcium carbonate, sand, bits of ecinoderm shells or sponge spicules
- have podia (cytoplasmic projections) for gathering food and materials for their tests and for swimming
This species from the supergroup ____ derives nourishment from photosythesis of symbiotic algae living within their tests.
Foraminiferans from the supergroup Rhizaria!
Some protists from the supergroup Rhizaria have tests. What does this mean?
Tests are shells which serve as the house for these protists.
Foraminiferan tests are made out of (silica/calcium carbonate).
Calcium carbonate--they are white and chalky
Tests of Radiiolarians are made out of (Silica/Calcium carbonate).
Silica--they are clear
What are the defining characteristics of Cercozoans? (Supergroup Rhizaria)
- Contain most of the amoeboid and flagellated protists that feed with threadlike pseudopodiaFound in marine and freshwater and in soil
- Most are parasites or predators
Cercozoans are from which supergroup, and where do they exist?
Rhizaria; found in marine, freshwater, and soil environments.
True or false: Most cercozoans are parasites or predators.
Supergroup #4: Archaeplastida
Which species are found in this group? (RA-GA-LaP)
Includes red algae, green algae, and land plants
Sort the following types of algae into the correct groups.
1. Red Algae
2. Brown Algae
3. Gold Algae
4. Green Algae
- Chromalveolata; stramenophila: Gold & Brown Algae
- Archeaplpastida: Red & Green Algae
What are the characteristics of Red Alga - Rhodophytes? (rhodo=red)(supergroup Archaeplastida)
- No centrioles; no flagella
- Reproduce by alternation of generations
- produce pigments that give them a red color
- Phorohyra aka Japanese Nori is made from Red Algae
What are the characteristics of Green Algae?
- Divided into two groups: charophytes and chlorophytes
- charophytes are more related to plants
What are the two sub-groups of green algae?
What are the characteristics of Chlorophytes?
- Chlorophytes include 7,000 species
- most are freshwater (but also marine and terrestrial forms)
- Chlamydomonas: simple, unicellular, resembles gametes or zoospores of more complex chlorophytes
Habitats of unicellular chlorophytes include: ?
Water(phytoplankton), damp soil, symbiosis inside eukaryotes, and even snow!
Green Algae that exists in water are known as _____.
Green Algae is (unicellular/multicellular).
Both! Unicellular and Multicellular species exist.
Name three common colonial and multicellular chlorophytes:
- colonial chlorophyte
- filamentous forms of green algae that forms pond scum
- forms multicellular bodies by cell division and differentiation
- Ulva(sea lettuce) has developed alternation of generations
- type of colonial/multicellular chlorophyte
- shows repeted division of nucli with no cytoplasmic division, so it is one big "supercell"
- biflagellated gametes with cup shaped chloroplasts
True or False: Most chlorophytes have simple life cycles consisting of only asexual reproduction.
False! Most chlorophytes have complex life cycles with both asexual and sexual reproduction
Which Archaeplastid species contains no centrioles or flagella?
Which species of Archaeplastida is used to make Japanese Nori?
Which subspecies of Green Algae forms pond scum?
Volvox. Colonial green algae
Which subspecies of Green Algae is also known as Sea Lettuce?
Supergroup #5: Unikonta
Extremely diverse supergroup that includes animals, fungi, and some protists.
Supergroup Unikonta is divided into the following two subgroups (Ayeee-oh!):
Unikonta subgroup A- Amoebozoans includes the following species (SEG):
- slime molds
- True Amoebas
- pseudopodia that are lobe or tube shaped
- microfilaments of actin and myosin
- amoebas can move in ANY direction
Ameobazoan species A: Slime Molds
What are the two types?
- Originated at least 3 times, and used to be grouped as fungi
Sime mold type 1: Plasmodial Slime molds
- Multinucleate, moving mass of cytoplasm = feeding phase
- usually yellow or orange color
- feed on bacteria,yeast, other organic matter
- undergoes synchronous mitosis
- form sporangium under adverse conditions
Slime mold type 2: Cellular slime molds
- Individual, act like amoebas
- eat bacteria
- if food is scarce, they aggregate to form a moving "slug"
Which type of slime mold feeds on bacteria, as well as yeast and other organic material?
plasmodial slime mold
Which type of slime mold forms sporangium under adverse conditions?
Which type of slime mold aggregates into a moving "slug" if food is scarce?
Ameobazoan species B: Gynamoebas (naked amoebas)
- Large and varied group of amoebas
- found in soil, freshwater, and saltwater
- heterotrophs that feed on bacteria, other protists, and detritus (dead organic material)
dead organic material
Ameobozoan species C: Entamoebas
- parasites of vertebrates and some invertebrates
- causes amebic dysentery
- spread via contaminated food, water, or eating utinsils
What happens if Entamoeba histolytica gets into the brain?
It will eat the brain tissue and cause abscesses!
Unikonta subgroup #2: Opisthokonts
Includes animals, fungi, and several groups of protists.
Opisthokonts species- Choanoflagellida:
- Most likely the common ancestor of sponges
- have single flagellum surrounded by collar of shorter filaments
- Feed by straining bacteria from water with their collar
Which species of the Amoebozoans are parasites of vertebrates and some invertebrates?
Which protist group is most likely the common ancestor of the sponges?
Why is this significant?
- Protist Choanoflagellida (from the subgroup Opisthokonts of the Unikonta supergroup)
- Significant because sponges are thought to be the first Eukaryotic species--the ancient ancestor of humans
Which types of protists are or can be colonial?
- Some types of Gold Algae
- Some types of Green Algae Chlorophytes: Volvox
Which types of protist are or can be multicellular?
Ulva from the Green Algae chlorophytes
Which 5 protists are listed as photosynthetic?
- Golden Algae
Which two types of photosynthetic protists are can also be mixotrophs?
Which type of protist undergoes synchronous mitosis?
Plasmodial slime molds
Which protists reproduce only through mitosis?
- Plasmodial slime molds
In Brown Algae (sporophytes/gametophytes) undergo meiosis to produce spores.
In Brown Algae (sporophytes/gametophytes) are smaller, filamentous individuals.
Which protists can reproduce through alternation of generations?
- Rhodophytes (Red Algae)
- Green Algae, multicellular chlorophyte: Ulva
- Brown Algae
Which type of algae can form protevtive cysts if environmental conditions deteriorate?
A. gold Algae.
Which algae is the only algae that DOES NOT reproduce through alternation of generations?
Which protists are or can become heterotropic?
- Euglenoids (mixotroph or heterotrophic)
- Plasmodial slime molds
- cellular slime molds