Communication Research Exam 1

  1. Ordinary Inquiry
    Predicting behavior (How would John react if I wrecked the car?)
  2. Overgeneralization
    A blanket observations--stereotypes.

    benefits: help us get through things if we overgeneralize

    how to fix: commit to how many observations to make
  3. Selective Observation
    ignoring things that don't fit the pattern. eg. buying a new car and recognizing more of the same car
  4. illogical reasoning
    when logic is not used to come to conclusions. 
  5. empirical support
  6. The premodern view
    One big reality: Different views are wrong.
  7. Modern view
    One reality with many interpretations.
  8. post-modernview
    No one reality, only many realities 
  9. Empirical enterprise
    basing information on observation
  10. social regularities
    trying to find a pattern of communication behavior, think probabilistic pattern
  11. aggregates
    the majority of the whole--group, not individuals
  12. Communication studies
    studying the processes of message production, transmission and meaning making

    systematically examine the content or form of communicative messages

    studying the functions and effects of messages
  13. Literature review
    Comprehensive survey of what's already been done (scholarly journals, books/chapters). Provides the argument for your research questions or hypothesis.
  14. Characteristics of quantitative research
    Measurable, survey, numerical research
  15. Organization of quantitative research
    • Title, byline, abstract (in italics)
    • Introduction: the purpose of study/rq
    • Method: Participants, materials, procedures
    • Results: Contains statistical language
    • Discussion: English translation of results
    • References
  16. Checklist for reading research reports
    • 1. Try not to evaluate a study outside the parameters of the approach to knowing in which it is positioned.
    • 2. Try not to reject findings because a study its method are not perfect.
    • 3. Try not to confuse form with substance
  17. Purposes of research
    • 1. Exploration: Initial step into topic area
    • 2. Description: Describe a phenomenon
    • 3. Casual/Functional Explanation: How/Why? Finding out how one variable impacts another.
    • 4. Understanding: Qualitative goal (interviewing) Second step when you move beyond describing an event to really understanding what is going on.
  18. Unit of Analysis
    Individual, group, social artifact, organization

    HOW you're collecting data, through which means?
  19. Cross-Sectional studies
    Less observation. A snapshot.
  20. Longitudinal studies
    • A video: Takes more observation.
    • Trends (monthly survey to see if people like president), Cohort (comparing freshman each year), panel (using same people over time)
  21. Field-dependent study
    Physical setting is part of the study
  22. Field-independent
    Physical setting is NOT part of the study
  23. Nomothetic
    Seeks to explain a class of situations or events rather than a single one
  24. Positivist paradigm
    Study variables through quantitative research
  25. Casual relationship
    Cause comes first
  26. Necessary
  27. Sufficient
  28. Induction
    Start with observations. Facts to theories, moves from particular instances to general principles.
  29. Deduction
    Start with theories
  30. Hypothesis
    States a predicted empirical outcome, what you expect to happen based on research
  31. Falsifiable
    Can be proven false
  32. Positive relationship
    Both go up or down together
  33. Negative relationship
    As one goes up, the other goes down
  34. Difference relationship
    when one variable is not measurable numerically--male v. female
  35. Directional (one-tailed)
    Relationship is positive or negative. More specific
  36. Nondirectional
    We're not sure. More vague--amount of conflict will vary between roommates.
  37. Operationalized
    How, specifically, variables will be measured
  38. Null hypothesis
    Presumes no difference in relationship.
  39. Origin of ethics
    Nazis, prisoners, unethical researchers
  40. Anonymity
    NO ONE knows the identity of person being surveyed
  41. Confidentiality
    ONLY RESEARCHERS know identity of those being surveyed
  42. Deception
    Okay if debriefing is done after
  43. How can you protect participants?
    Pseudonyms, not disclosing identifiable information, describing group not individuals
  44. Why be honest and have integrity?
    Owe it to the scientific community and to society.
Card Set
Communication Research Exam 1
Research Methods in Communication Studies Exam 1 Review