bio exam good set

  1. ·       Define the biologically relevant interactions (bonds) between molecules-
    • o   Ionic bonds- a atom donates or receives  an electron and the charged ions attract each other through electrostatic attraction
    • o   Pure covalent bonds- two atoms share a pair of electron evenly
    • o   Polar covalent bonds- two atoms share a pair of electrons unevenly where the more electronegative atom gets them more, partial positives and partial negatives are formed.
    • o   Hydrogen bonds- A weak electrostatic bond which arises from the attraction between the slight positive charge on a hydrogen atom and a slight negative charge on a nearby oxygen or nitrogen atom.
  2. Listfunctional groups commonly found in biological molecules
    ·       methyl, hydroxyl, amino, carboxyl, aldehyde, phosphate, sulfhydryl, phenyl
  3. List from memory the electronegativity of carbon,nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen.-
    ·       O(3.4) N(3.0) C(2.6) H(2.2)
  4. List the different kinds of biologicalmacromolecules and their monomers macromolecule(monomer).-
    nucleic acids (nucleotides), proteins (aminoacids), carbohydrates( simple sugars (glucose)), lipids( fatty acids (c-hbonds))
  5. ·       Describe the structure and functions of: simple sugars
    o   the general formula Cn(H2O)n, the primary energy source for many organisms
  6. describe the structure and function of nucleotides
    o   a nitrogen-containing base, a pentose sugar, and one to three phosphate groups/Monomer of dna and rna molecular energy transfer
  7. describe the structure and function of amino acids
    o   all contain two functional groups: the nitrogen-containing amino group and the carboxylic acid group, and  third is occupied by a hydrogen atom. The fourth bonding electron is shared with a group that differs in each amino acid. This is often referred to as the R group, or side chain/ make up proteins and determine the function of the proteins
  8. ·       Summarize the different forms and functions of complex carbohydrates.
    • o   Starches comprise a family of giant molecules that are all polysaccharides of glucose. The different starches can be distinguished by the amount of branching in their polymers. Starch is the principal energy storage compound of plants.
    • o   Glycogen is a water-insoluble, highly branched polymer of glucose that is the major energy storage molecule in mammals.
    • o   Cellulose: in plants(cell wall) but a linkage that the human body cannot break o   They are a source of stored energy that can be released in a form usable by organisms.
    • o   They are used to transport stored energy within complex organisms.
    • o   They function as structural molecules that give many organisms their shapes.
    • o   They serve as recognition or signaling molecules that can trigger specific biological responses.
  9. ·       Describe the possible levels of protein structure.
    • o   Primary structure: sequence of linked amino acids
    • o   The primary structure governs the formation and arrangement of other structures in a protein
    • o   Secondary structure:  the formation of helices or sheets (all determined by the primary structure) alpha corkscrew, beta folding
    • o   Tertiary structure:  how helices and sheets are arranged relative to one another o   Quaternary structure: how multiple polypeptide chains are arranged into a single protein
  10. Summarize the fundamental property of all lipids-
    ·       partially hydrophobic which means that at least part of it is nonpolar.
  11. Illustrate the structure of triglycerides and phospholipids
    glycerol with three fatty acids

    polar head, glycerol backbone, to fatty acids
  12. Predict what type of bond would be formed using electronegativity information
    ·       .- less than .5 pure covalent greater than .5 polar covalent
  13. Describe the relationship between functionalgroups and the molecules they are part of.-
    ·       they dertermine the properties and function of the larger molecules
  14. ·       Compare and contrast the structure and functions of DNA and RNA.
    o   DNA Monomer: nucleotide, AGCT/Function:Genetics, information storage long term heritable/Structure: Double helix of nucleic acid/Bond:  Hydrogen bonds, Phosphodister (covalent bond)

    o   RNA    Monomer: Nucleotides, AGCU/ Function: Genetics, using/accessing genetic information, temporary copy/ Structure: Single strand of nucleic acid/ Bonds: phosphodister
  15. ·       Describe the four types of lipids.
    • o   Phospholipids- polar head, glycerol backbone, fatty acid chain and it is amphipathic, and  its function is membrane structure
    • o   Triglycerides- nonpolar, glycerol and three fatty acid chains and its function is energy strage for plants and animals
    • o   Fatty acids- all c=c bonds (double), unsaturated, liquid at room temperature,
    • o   Steroids- 4 carbon ring structure and function in nutrition, cellular signaling and building block of cell membrane
  16. ·       Describe how man-made fats are different from those found in nature and what their properties are.
    • o   Trans are fatty acids with trans configuration around c=c instead of cis configuration, unnatural
    • o   Semiliquid make it easier to transport fats
    • o   Cheaper for the food industry
    • o   Very unhealthy
  17. Ionic bond
    ·       a bond resulting from electrostatic attraction bond between an anion and cation
  18. Electronegativity
    ·       the strength of a an atom to attract electrons
  19. Covalent bond
    sharing electrons in a bond
  20. polar covalent bond
    the uneven sharing of electrons
  21. nonpolar covalent bonds
    sharing electrons evenly
  22. Hydrogen bond
    ·       the weak bond that exists between water that holds it together as a liquid through partial positive and partial negatives
  23. Cohesion of water-
    ·       water molecules attraction to each other
  24. Adhesion of water-
    waters ability to stay on a different surface
  25. hydrophobic
    water fearing (nonpolar)
  26. hydrophillic
    water loving (polar)
  27. functional groups
    commonly found bonded together and determine the properties of larger molecules, give functionality
  28. Macromolecule
    - a larger molecule that if made up of smaller molecules
  29. polymer
    made of monomers, large molecules made through dehydration
  30. Monomer
    small molecules
  31. Synthesis (condensation
    ·       dehydration by making a bond through the removal of water
  32. Degradation(hydrolysis
    ·       )- the process of breaking bonds by adding water
  33. Carbohydrate-
    ·       Macromolecules made entirely of just carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
  34. Glycosidic bond
    • o  
    • Bond between carbohydrate (sugar) molecules through an intervening oxygen atom (–O–).
  35. Polysaccharide(complex carbohydrate )-
    • o  
    • )- hundreds of sacaccharides attached with covalent bonds
  36. cellulose
    A polysaccharide used for cellular structure rather than energy storage like other carbohydrates
  37. starch
    energy storage in plants
  38. glycogen
    A highly branched polysaccharide use by animals for cellular energy storage. Cannot be digested by humans
  39. Nucleic acid
    ·       A polymer made up of nucleotides, specialized for the storage, transmission, and expression of genetic information. DNA and RNA are nucleic acids.
  40. RNA
    ·       A macromolecule that contains the sugar ribose in its monomers.
  41. Phosphodiester bond
    • o  
    • The connection in a nucleic acid strand, formed by linking two nucleotides.
  42. Nucleotide
    • o  
    • The basic chemical unit in nucleic acids, consisting of a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.
  43. Purine
    Nucleotides that have two nitrogen-containing ringed bases fused together.
  44. Pyrimidine
    • o  
    • One of the two types of nitrogenous bases in nucleic acids. Each of the _-cytosine, thymine, and uracil—pairs with a specific purine.
  45. Protein-
    ·       Long-chain polymer of amino acids with twenty different common side chains. Occurs with its polymer chain extended in fibrous proteins, or coiled into a compact macromolecule in enzymes and other globular proteins.
  46. peptide bond
    • o  
    • The bond between amino acids in a protein; formed between a carboxyl group and amino group (—CO—NH—) with the loss of water molecules.
  47. polypeptide
    A large molecule made up of many amino acids joined by peptide linkages. Large polypeptides are called proteins.
  48. amino acid
    what proteins re made of, 20 amino acids
  49. lipids
    A class of macromolecules that play an important role both in energy storage and in forming cell membranes
  50. Steroid
    Any of a family of lipids whose multiple rings share carbons. The steroid cholesterol is an important constituent of membranes; other steroids function as hormones.
  51. fats
    • o  
    • A triglyceride that is solid at room temperature. (Contrast with oil.)
  52. fatty acids
    A molecule made up of a long nonpolar hydrocarbon chain and a polar carboxyl group. Found in many lipids.
  53. saturated fatty acids
    straight have hydrogen all around
  54. unsaturated fatty acid
    bent have a double bond
  55. glycerol
    A three-carbon alcohol with three hydroxyl groups; a component of phospholipids and triglycerides.
  56. triglyceride
    Macromolecules that contain a glycerol and three fatty acids
  57. phospholipid
    A lipid containing a phosphate group; an important constituent of cellular membranes.
  58. Amphipathic
    ·       Of a molecule, having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions.
  59. ·       Name the components and dominant biochemical property of biological membranes
    Phospholipids, integral proteins, peripheral proteins, glycoprotein, glycolipids§  Allows for the movement of substances in and out of the cell, semipermeable.
  60. ·       Summarize the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure.
    §  Fluid:  lipids, proteins not anchored; can move about from side to side (rarely flip sides)§  Mosaic: made of different parts: lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates
  61. ·       Describe the factors involved in membrane fluidity.
    • §  Temperature decreases: temperature decreases: cause membranes to become more solid
    • §  Temperature increases:  cause membranes to become more fluid
  62. ·       Distinguish the types of membrane proteins
    • §  Transmembrane proteins- An integral membrane protein that spans the phospholipid bilayer
    • §  Peripheral proteins- Proteins associated with but not embedded within the plasma membrane.
    • §  Glycoproteins- A protein to which sugars are attached
  63. Describe forms of active transport across membranes
    o   Primary(use atp energy t go against the concentration gradient) and secondary(coupled)
  64. ·       Differentiate between channel proteins and carrier proteins.
    o   Channel proteins are tubes where molecules flow through, carrier proteins bind to a substance
  65. ·       Describe the function of the Na+/K+ pump.
    o   Uses ATP energy to go against the concentration gradient to pump sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell
  66. Distinguish between endocytosis and exocytosis
    o   Endocytosis is bring substances into the cell and exocytosis is releasing substances from the cell
  67. ·       Summarize similarities and differences among diverse membrane lipids
  68. Phospholipids        can differ in terms of fatty acid chain length (number of carbon atoms),        degree of unsaturation (number of double bonds) in the fatty acids, and        the kinds of polar (phosphate-containing) groups present., and the        amount of brabnching
  69. ·       Predict the structure of a membrane, given data from the membrane structure experiment.
    If the surface area of the        phospholipids is 2 to 1 of the surface area of the cells than it is a        bilayer 1:1 monolayer 4:1 double bilayer
  70. ·       Predict the changes a cell might make to membrane fluidity in response to a temperature change.
  71. Temperature decreases:        temperature decreases: cause membranes to become more solid    Temperature increases:  cause membranes to become more fluid   Unsaturated fatty acids: increase fluidity   Shorter fatty acid chains: increase fluidity    Saturated fatty acids: decrease fluidity   Longer fatty acid chains:  decrease fluidity
  72. ·       Compare & contrast different types of diffusion, active transport, and osmosis.
    go look at the table you made
  73. ·       Predict the movement of water across a membrane based on the tonicity of a solution outside the cell.
    • o  
    • Hypertonic: water will flow into the cello   Hypotonic: water will
    • flow out of the cello   Isotonic: water will flow in and out f the cell at the same rate
  74. ·       Explain the energetics of coupled transport.
    • o  
    • Works with primary active transport
    • o   When protons go into a cell they release energy which is caputured by the protein
    • o   Energy used to drive sucrose into the cell o   Uses energy of the facilitated diffusion
  75. Predict the force and mechanism to move a substance across a membrane, given a set of conditions
    • o  
    • Remember low to high, permeability (small non charged) and other things
  76. ·       Explain how endocytosis can be specific.
    • o  
    • Phagocytosis(receptor mediated endocytosis)- specific, have receptors on membrane surface and cause endocytosis
  77. ·       Summarize what happens to endocytic vesicles and their contents upon moving into a cell.
    • o  
    • Form vesicles are fused with other vesicles and form an endosome where contents are processed, then fuse with a lysosome where enzymes digest
  78. transmembrane proteins
    ·       An integral membrane protein that spans the phospholipid bilayer.
  79. peripheral protein
    ·       - A protein that is associated with a membrane but does not protrude into the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
  80. glycolipid
    ·       A lipid to which sugars are attached
  81. glycoprotein
    ·       Molecule that is a made up of both protein and carbohydrate parts
  82. concentration gradient
    ·       What is the term given to a situation where the amount of a dissolved solute is different on either side of a cell membrane
  83. simple diffusion
    - The term that describes the process of a small molecule passing directly through the phospholipids of a membrane, going from high concentration to low concentration
  84. facilitated diffusion
    ·       The process by which ions or small charged molecules cross a membrane with the assistance of of a membrane protein, but without the use of energy
  85. osmosis
    ·       The process by which water moves across a membrane.
  86. isotonic
    o   Having the same solute concentration; said of two solutions
  87. hypertonic
    o   A solution that has a higher concentration of solutes than than the solution on the other side of a membrane.
  88. hypotonic
    o   Having a lesser solute concentration. Said of one solution in comparing it to another.
  89. Aquaporin
    • -A transport protein
    • in plant and animal cell membranes through which water passes in osmosis
  90. channel protein
    ·       A transport protein that forms a pore in a membrane, thereby allowing charged substances to cross the membrane without binding to the transported substance
  91. carrier protein
    ·       - A membrane protein that binds to a substance to transport it across a cell membrane.
  92. active transport
    ·       The process by which molecules are moved across a membrane using cellular energy.
  93. passive transport
    ·       - Any process whereby substances are moved across a membrane without the direct use of energy by the cell.
  94. phospholipids
    ·       The molecules that forms the main hydrophobic core of a cell membrane
  95. primary active transport
    o   Active transport in which ATP is hydrolyzed, yielding the energy required to transport an ion or molecule against its concentration gradient.
  96. secondary active transport
    o   - A form of active transport that does not use ATP as an energy source; rather, transport is coupled to ion diffusion down a concentration gradient established by primary active transport.
  97. endocytosis
    ·       The general term for processes that bring macromolecules, particles, and small cells into another cell.
  98. excocytosis
    ·       The process by which large molecules or particles are moved out of a cell.
Card Set
bio exam good set
key concepts